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Szent István University, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Budapest. Nutrition / environment related disorders in porcine reproduction: a problem-oriented approach . Prof. Gyula Huszenicza DVM, PhD , DSc, Dipl. of ECAR. Reproductive performance. Intended Critical

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Nutrition environment related disorders in porcine reproduction a problem oriented approach l.jpg

Szent István University, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Budapest

Nutrition / environment related disorders in porcine reproduction: a problem-oriented approach

Prof. Gyula Huszenicza

DVM, PhD, DSc, Dipl. of ECAR


Reproductive performance l.jpg

Reproductive performance

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d 10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d 3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy 1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt 9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow 10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <8 12% >25%


Reproductive performance nutrition l.jpg

Reproductive performance  Nutrition

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty 210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning 4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d 10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d 3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy 1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt 9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow 10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <8 12% >25%


Slide4 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning 4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d 10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d 3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy 1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt 9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow 10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <8 12% >25%


Gilts stages of genital maturation l.jpg

Gilts: stages of genital maturation

Ovarian function:

Infantile:no regular follicular growth

Juvenile:regular follicular growth, but no ovulation / formation of CL

Cyclic:regular follicular growth + ovulation + formation of CL


Gilts stages of genital maturation6 l.jpg

Gilts: stages of genital maturation

Ovarian function:

Infantile: no regular follicular growth

Juvenile: regular follicular growth, but no ovulation / formation of CL

Cyclic:regular follicular growth + ovulation + formation of CL

Puberty: process leading to the first ovulation


Gilt puberty the 1st estrus the delayed puberty l.jpg

Gilt: puberty = the 1st estrus;the delayed puberty

Body weight (BW) / condition (BC):  115-120 kg

Age:6-6.5 months

Rearing intensity (at 90 kg BW: backfat-tickness)

rearing ofbreeding giltsfinishing gilts

(The lack of) stimulattory fac-tors: boar / moderate stress

Season: the late summer period


Gilt puberty the 1st estrus the delayed puberty8 l.jpg

Gilt: puberty = the 1st estrus;the delayed puberty

Body weight (BW) / condition (BC):  115-120 kg

Age:6-6.5 months Rearing intensity (at 90 kg BW: backfat-tickness)

rearing ofbreeding giltsfinishing gilts

(The lack of) stimulattory fac-tors: boar / moderate stress

Season: the late summer period

But: First AI / mating

= 3rd estrus / ovulation

Age: 210 - 220 day

BW: 130 - 150 kg

Condition: 18-20 mm (back fat thickness)


Gilt puberty the 1st estrus the delayed puberty9 l.jpg

Gilt: puberty = the 1st estrus;the delayed puberty

Body weight (BW) / condition (BC):  115-120 kg

Age:6-6.5 months

Rearing intensity(at 90 kg BW: back fat thickness)

rearing ofbreeding giltsfinishing gilts

(The lack of) stimulatory fac-tors: boar / moderate stress

Season: the late summer period


Gilt puberty the 1st estrus the delayed puberty10 l.jpg

Gilt: puberty = the 1st estrus;the delayed puberty

Body weight (BW) / condition (BC):  115-120 kg

Age:6-6.5 months

Rearing intensity (at 90 kg BW: back fat thickness)

rearing ofbreeding giltsfinishing gilts

(The lack of) stimulatory fac-tors: boar / estrous animals / moderate stress

Season: the late summer period


Gilt puberty the 1st estrus the delayed puberty11 l.jpg

Gilt: puberty = the 1st estrus;the delayed puberty

Body weight (BW) / condition (BC):  115-120 kg

Age:6-6.5 months

Rearing intensity (at 90 kg BW: back fat thickness)

rearing ofbreeding giltsfinishing gilts

(The lack of) stimulatory fac-tors: boar / estrous animals / moderate stress

Season:the late summer period


Gilt delayed puberty l.jpg

Gilt: delayed puberty

Prevention / management

 Season(Aug. - Sept.)

 Boar / estrous animals (smell / pheromones)

 Moderate stress(re-grouping)

 Nutrition:- Protein / energy flushing - A+E vitamin, folic acid, biotin, Zn

 PMSG+hCG:If age: > 210 dBW: > 105 kg


Slide13 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty 210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d 10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d 3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy 1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt 9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow 10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <8 12% >25%


Sow genital function during lactation l.jpg

Sow: genital function during lactation

Uterine involution: 21 day

Follicular growth / maturation: regular

Regulation:(- FSH)

- baseline LH

- insulin / IGF-I

Ovulation: 5 week: 

 6. week: ???


Slide15 l.jpg

Weaning

Lactation / Suckling

Size of follicle (mm)

Days before / after weaning


Slide16 l.jpg

Weaning

Lactation / Suckling

Size of follicle (mm)

Estrus

Days before / after weaning


Slide17 l.jpg

Weaning

Anestrus / acyclia

Lactation / Suckling

Atretic / cystic degeneration

Size of follicle (mm)

Days before / after weaning


Slide18 l.jpg

Last 7-8 day pre-weaning: basal LH pulsatility (pulse frequency)

insulin

IGF-1

Weaning

Anestrus / acyclia

Lactation / Suckling

Atretic / cystic degeneration

Size of follicle (mm)

Days before / after weaning


Slide19 l.jpg

5 mm

Bonclelet: 1) Általában

NEM ÉRETT TERCIER TÜSZŐ

CORPUS ATRETICUM


Slide20 l.jpg

1 cm

Bonclelet: 2) Ritkábban

FOLLICULUS CISZTA


Slide21 l.jpg

1 cm

Bonclelet: 3) Szórványosan

LUTEIN CISZTA


Slide22 l.jpg

CL

7 mm

Bonclelet: 4) Elkülönítendő (nem kóros!)

PERZISZTÁLÓ GRAAF TÜSZŐ

CL = ovuláció / ciklus bizonyítéka!


Sow 1st ovulation estrus after weaning l.jpg

Sow: 1st ovulation / estrus after weaning

?


Sow 1st ovulation estrus after weaning24 l.jpg

Sow: 1st ovulation / estrus after weaning

Farrowing:condition

Lactation: changes in BW / condition:- degree

- timing

Fusarium (T2):(0.25-0,60 mg/kg)

Parity (1st vs. more aged)

Season(Aug. - Sept.)

Stress during lact.


1 weaning days 28 35th inten sive sys tems l.jpg

1. Weaning:days 28 - 35th (inten-sive sys-tems)


Sow 1st post weaning ovulation estrus l.jpg

Sow: 1st post-weaning ovulation + estrus

Progeszteron, nmol/l

Weaning (28-35th day)


After weaning delay in 1 st ovulation estrus l.jpg

After weaning: delay in 1st ovulation / estrus

Farrowing:BW / condition

Lactation: changes (loss) in BW / condition:- degree

- timing

Fusarium (T2):(0.25-0,60 mg/kg)

Parity (1st vs. more aged)

Season(Aug. - Sept.)

Stress during lactation


Slide29 l.jpg

Választás előtti utolsó 7-8 nap: LH-alapszekréció (pulzusfrekvencia)

inzulin

IGF-1


After weaning delay in 1 st ovulation estrus 10 day l.jpg

After weaning: delay in 1st ovulation / estrus(> 10 day !!!)


After weaning delay in 1 st ovulation estrus 10 day31 l.jpg

After weaning: delay in 1st ovulation / estrus(> 10 day !!!)

Disturbed energy supply

Farrowing: condition

Lactation: condition

loss- degree

- schedule

Fusarium (T2)(0.25- 0,60 mg/kg)

Season (late summer)

Weaning


After weaning delay in 1 st ovulation estrus 10 day32 l.jpg

After weaning: delay in 1st ovulation / estrus(> 10 day !!!)

Parameter of BC in sow: backfat (BF) thickness1 mm BF = 3 kg body fat

Optimal BC at farrowing:BF = 20 mm If during lactation: ad libitum feeding

(energy demand / sow:  45 MJ DE / day)

If sow is more obese:

dry matter intake during lactation  BW 

weaning to ovulation interval:


After weaning delay in 1 st ovulation estrus 10 day33 l.jpg

After weaning: delay in 1st ovulation / estrus(> 10 day !!!)

Energy demand during lactation :  45 MJ DE / day

The first parity sow

Additional factors:

- protein / amino acids (lizine) 

- Fusarium (T2) toxin  energy utilisation

- certain additives (biotin, Zn) 


After weaning 1 st ovulation estrus l.jpg

After weaning: 1st ovulation / estrus

Follic. growth / matur.: 1. FSH / inhibin

2. Baseline LH secretion

3. IGF-I / Insulin / Leptin


Post weaning progesterone profiles estrus 10 day l.jpg

Post-weaning progesterone profiles: estrus > 10 day !!!

Disturbed energy supply

Farrowing: condition

Lactation: condition

loss- degree

- schedule

Fusarium (T2)(0.25- 0,60 mg/kg)

Season(late summer)

Weaning


Post weaning progesterone profiles estrus 10 day36 l.jpg

Post-weaning progesterone profiles: estrus > 10 day !!!

Disturbed energy supply

Farrowing: condition

Lactation: condition

loss- degree

- schedule

Fusarium (T2)(0.25- 0,60 mg/kg)

Season(late summer)

Weaning


After weaning delay in 1 st ovulation estrus37 l.jpg

After weaning: delay in 1st ovulation / estrus

Farrowing:BW / condition

Lactation: changes (loss) in BW / condition:- degree

- timing

Fusarium (T2):(0.25-0,60 mg/kg)

Parity (1st vs. more aged)

Season (Aug. - Sept.)

Stress during lactation


Post weaning progesterone profiles estrus 10 day38 l.jpg

Post-weaning progesterone profiles: estrus > 10 day !!!

During lactation:moderate stress

week 5th: ovulation !!!

Weaning


Post weaning progesterone profiles estrus 10 day39 l.jpg

Post-weaning progesterone profiles: estrus > 10 day !!!

During lactation:moderate stress

week 5th: ovulation !!!

(„Green movements” = animal welfare

farrowing / keeping insmall groups)

Weaning


2 weaning day 35th extensive sys tems l.jpg

2. Weaning:day  35th (extensive sys-tems)


Weaning 35th day extensive farming systems l.jpg

Weaning: 35th day(extensive farming systems)

Usually:

Robost = less sensitive to failures in nutrition

Anything of those observed in intensive farming may exist, but with lower prevalence

Particular trouble:ovulation (but never: estrus) in the last days of the  6-week-long lactation


Post weaning progesterone profiles estrus 10 day42 l.jpg

Post-weaning progesterone profiles: estrus > 10 day !!!

In the last days of the  6-week-long lactation :

ovulation  CL

(but estrus:  )

Weaning


Slide43 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty 210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning 4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy 1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt 9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow 10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <8 12% >25%


Returning to estrus after ai mating l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

Progeszteron, nmol/l

AI / Mating


Slide45 l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

In general:pregnant

If laterreturned to estrus:

AI / Mating

AI 21 42 day


Slide46 l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

In general:pregnant

If laterreturned to estrus:

- Vírusok (Aujeszky,

Parvo)

- Leptospira

- Erysipelotrix

- Endotoxin

- Fusarium (F2)

AI / Mating


Slide47 l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

In general:pregnant

If laterreturned to estrus:

- Vírusok (Aujeszky,

Parvo)

- Leptospira

- Erysipelotrix

- Endotoxin

- Fusarium (F2)

AI / Mating


Maternal recognition of pregnancy 1 l.jpg

Maternal recognition of pregnancy - 1


Maternal recognition of pregnancy 2 l.jpg

Maternal recognition of pregnancy - 2

Day 12-14 after ovulation

If:  4 living embryo


The maternal recognition of pregnancy may be mimicked also by f2 toxin l.jpg

The maternal recognition of pregnancy may be mimicked also by F2 toxin

Day 12-14 after ovulation


Slide51 l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

AI / Mating


Slide52 l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

Returning to estrus

But: not always obser-ved = „silent estrus”

(on well-managed farms: hardly existing problem)

AI / Mating


Slide53 l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

Returning to estrus

AI / Mating

AI 21 42 day


Slide54 l.jpg

Returning to estrus after AI / mating

Endometritis(AI / mating: hygiene)

AI:technical failures

Early embryonic death (oviduct / early in the uterus)

AI / Mating


Slide55 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty 210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning 4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d 10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d 3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy 1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt 9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow 10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <8 12% >25%


Slide56 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty 210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning 4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d 10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d 3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt 9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow 10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <8 12% >25%


Slide57 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Gilt: agepuberty 210 d >220 d

Sow: estruspost-weaning 4-8 d >12 d

Returning to estrus21d 10% >20%

Returning to estrus>24 d 3% >6%

Abortion 1% >2,5%

Misdiagnosed pregnancy 1% >2%

Litter size, alive

- gilt9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sow10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <812% >25%


Slide58 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Litter size, alive

- gilts9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sows10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <812% >25%

- The cycle resulting in pregnancy: rate of ovulation

- Mating / AI (timing, other technical aspects)

- Day <28-30 of gestation: reduction in number of embryos


Slide59 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Litter size, alive

- gilts9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sows10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <812% >25%

- The cycle resulting in pregnancy: rate of ovulation

- Mating / AI (timing, other technical aspects)

- Day <28-30 of gestation: reduction in number of embryos


Rate of ovulations l.jpg

Rate of ovulations

=number of ovulated follicles  CL-s


Gilts rate of ovulations l.jpg

Gilts: rate of ovulations

=number of ovulated follicles  CL-s

1) Genetic merit (4-6 12-20)

2) Number of cycles ( from puberty) 1  2  3 = 4 and more

3) Body weight / condition in practice: hardly / no limiting factor


Gilts rate of ovulations62 l.jpg

Gilts: rate of ovulations

=number of ovulated follicles  CL-s

1) Genetic merit (4-6 12-20)

2) Number of cycles ( from puberty) 1  2  3 = 4 and more

3) Body weight / condition in practice: hardly / no limiting factor


Weaned sow rate of ovulation l.jpg

Weaned sow: rate of ovulation

=number of ovulated follicles  CL-s

1) Genetic merit (4-612-20)

2) Number of cycles ( from weaning)

3) Body weight / condition


Weaned sow rate of ovulation64 l.jpg

Weaned sow: rate of ovulation

=number of ovulated follicles  CL-s

1) Genetic merit (4-612-20)

2) Number of cycles ( from weaning)

3) Body weight / condition


Slide65 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Litter size, alive

- gilts9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sows10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <812% >25%

- The cycle resulting in pregnancy: rate of ovulation

- Mating / AI (timing, other technical aspects)

- Day <28-30 of gestation: reduction in number of embryos


Slide66 l.jpg

Intended Critical

Litter size, alive

- gilts9,5-10,0 <9,0

- sows10,5-11,0 <10,0

Litter size <812% >25%

- The cycle resulting in pregnancy: rate of ovulation

- Mating / AI (timing, other technical aspects)

- Day <28-30 of gestation: reduction in number of embryos


Litter size 8 l.jpg

Littersize: < 8

(Post-pubertal increase in OR)

Microbial factors

Nutrition:

1) Energy dependent

- 7-8 days before estrus:shortage

- in the early weeks of preg-nancy: too aboundant

2) Fusarium (T2) (?)


Litter size 868 l.jpg

Littersize: < 8

(Post-pubertal increase in OR)

Microbial factors

Nutrition:

1) Energy dependent

- 7-8 days before estrus:shortage

- in the early weeks of preg-nancy: too aboundant

2) Fusarium (T2) (?)


Litter size 869 l.jpg

Littersize: < 8

(Post-pubertal increase in OR)

Microbial factors

Nutrition:

1) Energy dependent

- 7-8 days before estrus:shortage

- in the early weeks of preg-nancy: too aboundant

2) Fusarium (T2) (?)


Litter size 870 l.jpg

Littersize: < 8

(Post-pubertal increase in OR)

Microbial factors

Nutrition:

1) Energy dependent

- 7-8 days before estrus:shortage

- in the early weeks of preg-nancy: too aboundant

2) Fusarium (T2) (?)


Slide71 l.jpg

AI / Mating10 20 30 day


Slide72 l.jpg

AI / Mating10 20 30 day


Slide73 l.jpg

AI / Mating10 20 30 day


Slide74 l.jpg

AI / Mating10 20 30 day


Slide75 l.jpg

AI / Mating10 20 30 day


Litter size 876 l.jpg

Littersize: < 8

(Post-pubertal increase in OR)

Microbial factors

Nutrition:

1) Energy dependent

- 7-8 days before estrus:shortage

- in the early weeks of preg-nancy: too aboundant

2) Fusarium (T2) (?)


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