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Be able to differentiate between different types of Food Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club. Understand U.S. Food Retail sales trend and where growth has occurred.

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  • Be able to differentiate between different types of Food Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

  • Understand U.S. Food Retail sales trend and where growth has occurred.

  • Be able to explain what has happened to the number of Supermarkets in the U.S. relative to the amount of Supermarket floor space and the number of unique items per store.

  • Explain where concentration in this industry is occurring and whether consumers should be worried.

  • What have been the challenges to “On-Line Shopping”

  • Where has the U.S. Food Retail industry focused improving productivity while lowering operational costs?

U.S. Food Retail

EconS 451: Lecture #4

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


Retail definitions l.jpg
Retail Definitions Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Distribution of U.S. Foodstore sales Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.


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Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.


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Number of Supermarkets and Sales Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Supermarket Definitions: Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Loss of Market Share Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

  • Conventional supermarkets have lost significant market share to Supercenters and Warehouse clubs. Their strategy to compete is to:

    • Focus on natural foods

    • More pre-prepared foods

    • Promote store/private labels

    • Promote frequent shopper discounts

    • On-line home shopping

    • Self-Checkout

    • More personalized

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Challenges to On-Line Shopping Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

  • Meeting customers expectation on timely delivery

  • Access to delivery locale in all weather conditions

  • Spoilage for perishables like milk, ice cream, damaged fruit, etc.

  • Inflated delivery costs in low/density areas.

    Primary reasons why success has been in high-density cities.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Retail Mergers / Divestures Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Concentration in Food Retail Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

  • National Concentration has increased substantially, local market concentration has only increased slightly due to anti-trust oversight and monitoring.

  • Between 1992-1998 C4 ratio of national grocery retailers increased 68.6% while the C4 ratio among the largest 100 cities increased 5.4%.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Sales of Top Grocery Wholesalers Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA

Food Retail World - Leading Retailers


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Productivity and Average Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club. Hourly Earnings

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Foreign Owned Food Retailers Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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Summary! Retail outlets: Supermarket, Convenience Store, Superette, Supercenter, Warehouse Club.

  • Retail food sales growth has been slow due to slow population growth and growth of fast-food sales.

  • The number of supermarkets has declined while average floor space has increased, understand the benefits associated with this market shift.

  • Nontraditional supermarkets have focused on all natural specialty products (Wild Oats, Whole Foods, Trader Joes).

  • Implications for industry concentration related to upstream purchasing power relative to ability to increase price to consumers.

  • Understand food retail employment productivity changes relative to average earnings per employee.

  • Foreign investment in U.S. Food Retail still relatively small, but investment of U.S. Food Retail from abroad is growing.

Source: U.S. Food Marketing System, 2002, ERS-USDA


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