SUSTAINABLE URBAN DESIGN CONCEPT FOR TSUNAMI RISK AREA CASE STUDY : TOWN IN THE SOUTHWEST COAST ACEH REGION. BY : Nurlisa Ginting and Achmad Delianur Nasution. Sustainable Development.
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Nurlisa Ginting and Achmad Delianur Nasution
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without jeopardizing the ability of future generation to meet their own needs” World Comission on Environmental and Development (Brundtland Comission, 1987).
Nine principle for “sustainable society” :
The purpose of Urban Design (Spreiregen 1985) :
McHarg (1989), Lewis, and other eloquent exponents of the environment planning movement have brought into focus the evolving philosophy that ecological processes provide indispensable basis for planning and design.
The dependence of one life process on another; the interconnected development of living and physical process of earth, climate, water, plants, and animals; the continuous transformation and recycling of living and non-living materials; these are the elements of the self-perpetuating biosphere that sustain life on earth and which give rise to the physical landscape. They become the central determinants of form for all human activities on the land.
The “Form Follow Function” principle could not be the sole basis for environmental design. Today, “Design with Nature” principle is part of design practices which is more appropriate to the evolvement process of nature.
Open SpaceHuman Dimension of Urban Designin Tsunami Risk Area
The concept of modern lifestyle which is based on moral code of Islam, is one among concepts mentioned by Prof. Ghani Salleh from University Sains Malaysia in the “Urban Recovery After Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster” seminar on January 29, 2005 which was organized by Architecture Program of Postgraduate School of University of North Sumatera.
A number of City Shape Concepts for areas which is in jeopardy of tsunami:
- Redeveloping new town in the area of low possibility to be hit by tsunami wave, for example: in remote areas from sea coast, in highland areas , or in wall-surrounded areas.
in Tsunami Risk Area
At the macro level, land use in sea coast area suggested to be the coastal boundary line (300-500 m), which is used to be the green area and natural drainage area so it could be the buffer or protection against tsunami wave. According to the field work in the west coast of Aceh, the destruction effects of tsunami wave generally lessened in the distance of 250 meters from the sea coast.
The perpendicular major circulation from coastal area towards the hill is designed wide open and leads directly to the evacuation point to assist community to evacuate when tsunami comes.
in Tsunami Risk Area
The shape of compact city creates possibilities to plan transportation mode that prioritize the pedestrian, hence, the use of un-renewable fossil fuels such as gasoline, could be reduced as minimum as possible.
Furthermore, the pedestrian patterns could be able to generate socialized lifestyle in urban community.
Building Form and Massing
The orientation of building would be better to face the sea or able to receive quick warning of vulnerabilities from the sea. Building construction should be focused on earthquake resistance structures or temporarily withstand during the people try to find more secure place.
Open spaces, squares and mosque courtyards turned to be evacuation areas in emergency situation.
in Tsunami Risk Area
Fishery and its activity supports are part of community livelihood and in principal, the location has to be remained in the coastal area to support the community to run their daily activities.
Information, as part of community facilities, is set at public places and coastal areas.
The persistent buildings after the tsunami, especially public buildings could be reoccupied as long as the construction strength remains structurally accepted.
This would be memorial buildings and have economic advantage.
(10) Darul Makmur
THE ARCHITECTURE TYPOLOGY OF TOWNS IN SOUTHWEST ACEH REGION REGION BEFORE THE DISASTER
Housing orientation is to the pathway not to the sea.
Dominant housing spacious, more-or-less 30m2
Materials are mainly wood and cement plaster.
TO THE SEA
By many variations in different locations, the totally destroyed buildings is in the distance of 250 metersfrom the coastal line.
The condition of town around Meulaboh Mosque
Buildings in the coastal boundary line are oriented to the road and backed on to the sea.
Land Use Pattern
Land use planning for coastal towns regions aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami disaster is based on the estimation of building location and activities safeness to the tsunami hazard, as follows:
Open Space and Mosque as a town center
New Town Area
Old Town Area