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Science and Technology Markup Language

(STML)

For (Virtual) Poster Presentation or

Demonstration at

MathML and Math on the Web Conference

at the

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

October 20-21, 2000

Som Karamchetty

Army Research Laboratory

Adelphi, Maryland

(MathML)

"MathML will make the Web even better for educational,

scientific and technical materials. It also has the potential to make

mathematics accessible to those with visual disabilities. It will allow

mathematical content to be reused and exchanged with technical

computing systems for further manipulation."

-- Tim Berners-Lee, Director, W3C

Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

MathML is Necessary but not Sufficient for

Science and Technology

- MathML will be necessary to do equations embedded in text.
- MathML will not be sufficient to represent essential other elements
- in Science and Technology, namely:
- Tables
- Graphs
- Sketches
- Procedures

Science and Technology Markup Language

(STML)

STML will make the Web even better for educational, scientific and

technical materials. It will allow scientific and technical content

to be reused and exchanged with technical computing systems for

further manipulation.

--- Som Karamchetty [1]

1 with apologies to Tim Berners-Lee

Explanation

Technical Textbooks, Handbooks, Journal papers contain Equations, Tables, Graphs, Sketches, and Procedures embedded in text.

Scientists, Technologists, and Engineers use books to read, create, recreate, and rewrite text, data, and information in these forms.

Representing Equations is not sufficient.

How do Scientists, Technologists, and Engineers compute?

- Read books, journals, brochures
- Use embedded equations, tables, graphs, sketches
- Develop procedures on the fly
- Use embedded procedures
- Store information in books, notebooks
- Transmit information

Representations for Science & Technical Objects

Computer representation concepts for technical objects

- equations,
- tables,
- graphs,
- sketches
- procedures

Described in Natural Computing

Features of Natural Computing

- Represents objects used in calculations, such as

Equations, Tables, Graphs, Sketches, and Procedures

- Embeds objects in text
- Enables interactive calculations with embedded objects
- Enables program development with objects
- Enables domain specialists to incorporate S&T subject into objects
- Separates software tool development and domain development

a book page

Benefits from Natural Computing

- Separates software tool development from content

incorporation

- Leads to domain-independent tools
- Captures common calculation features for ready use
- Enables rapid development of electronic technical books
- Make the Web even better for educational, scientific, and technical materials

Can be the basis for Science and Technology Markup Language (STML)

Extend MathML to STML

- GML
- SGML
- HTML
- XML
- MathML
- STML

- The principal goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served,
- received, and processed on the Web, just as HTML has enabled this
- functionality for text.
- In more detail, MathML is intended to:
- encode mathematical material suitable for teaching and scientific
- communication at all levels.
- encode both mathematical notation and mathematical meaning.
- facilitate conversion to and from other math formats, both presentational
- and semantic.
- allow the passing of information intended for specific renderers and
- applications.
- support efficient browsing for lengthy expressions.
- provide for extensibility.
- be well suited to template and other math editing techniques.
- be human legible (though it is very verbose), and simple for software to
- generate and process.

Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

- The principal goal of STML will be to enable Science and technology(including mathematics and engineering) to be served,
- received, and processed on the Web, just as HTML has enabled this
- functionality for text.
- In more detail, STML is intended to:
- encode S&T material suitable for teaching and scientific and technical
- communication at all levels.
- encode both S&T notation and S&T meaning.
- facilitate conversion to and from other S&T formats, both presentational
- and semantic.
- allow the passing of information intended for specific renderers and
- applications.
- support efficient browsing for complex procedures.
- provide for extensibility.
- be well suited to template and other S&T editing techniques.
- be human legible, and simple for software to generate and process.

Modified from Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

STML is intended to be used (indirectly usually) by everyone

from high-school science students to academics and engineers

in industry. It also provides an interchange mechanism between

applications processing S&T representation in some form.

Modified from Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

Why do the goals of STML go beyond the display

of Science and Technology information ?

The Web represents a fundamental change in the underlying metaphor

for knowledge storage, a change in which interconnectivity and

interactivity play central roles. The intention is to provide ways of

communicating science and technology which, in addition to

rendering mechanisms, facilitate automatic processing, searching and

indexing, and reuse in other S&T applications and contexts.

This includes contexts where the underlying S&T semantics are

important.

Modified from Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

No one computer application does everything and information

frequently needs to be shared by people and by applications.

We need to be able to transfer S&T objects between

applications, even applications running on different computers.

This transfer involves a transcription from the sender\'s internal

representation of the object to one used by the receiver.

Modified from Source: http://www.matematik.su.se/~leifj/wshop/openmath.html

- STML = MathML Plus Some
- Equations
- plus
- Tables
- Graphs
- Sketches
- Procedures
- STML will be sufficiently capable for Science and Engineering.

Table representation in Natural Computing

Anatomy of Table Class

- Caption
- Header
- Body
- Footnotes

Table 7-1. Thermal Properties

applicable to real gases

0,1

0,2

1,0

1,1

1,2

Anatomy of Table Header- Cell cage
- Cell types
- Cell contents

String

Pressure Temperature Volume

psia deg F Cft

Cell Contents

S. No.

Cell Location

0 , 0

0

p0

0 , 1

1

p1

0 , 2

2

p2

1, 0

3

p3

1 , 1

4

p4

1 , 2

5

p5

0,0

0,1

0,2

1,0

1,1

1,2

Cell Cage ArrayCell Contents

Array

Pressure

Temperature

Volume

psia

deg F

Cft

Cell Cage

Table Values

Adajacency of values

Pressure has 2nd East neighbor Volume

150 has 2nd East neighbor result

Dr. Som Karamchetty

Army Research Laboratory

AMSRL-CI-C

Adelphi, MD 20783-1197

(301) 394-3198

(301) 394-3591 (fax)

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