Augmented Input (PDAs/Smartphones) Enhances Memory, Organization, and Social Skills
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Augmented Input (PDAs/Smartphones) Enhances Memory, Organization, and Social Skills ________________________________________________ The University of Akron School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Yvonne Gillette, [email protected] Roberta DePompei, [email protected]

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Augmented Input (PDAs/Smartphones) Enhances Memory, Organization, and Social Skills ________________________________________________

The University of Akron

School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

Yvonne Gillette, [email protected]

Roberta DePompei, [email protected]


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What are PDAs and Smartphones? Organization, and Social Skills --- ROBOTS!

  • PDAs (Personal Data Assistants)

    • Robots in the shape of small notebook

    • Enhances your memory and organization skills

    • Includes pages similar to daily planners

  • Smartphones

    • Cell phones with PDA-like software

    • Phone service

    • Note: Many cell phones have the same planning features


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Key Features of PDAs/Smartphones Organization, and Social Skills

  • Appointment Calendar (alarms)

  • Contacts

  • To Do List: Daily, Weekly, Long-Term

  • Claculator, Expense List

  • Self-reminders-Voice or Written Memos

  • Camera


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Benefits of PDAs/Smartphones Organization, and Social Skills

  • Benefits over Paper Planners

    • Can provide alarms for calendar entries

    • Insurance against loss-can be backed up

  • General Benefits of Planners

    • Increase independence for your client

    • Assist with organization and memory

    • Provide a platform for planning

    • Promotes social skills


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PDA Intervention Plan : Organization, and Social Skills Assessment

  • Assesses a variety of functions

    • Appts,

    • Contacts,

    • To Do List,

    • Calculator/Expense List,

    • Self – reminders (written, voice)

    • Camera

  • Helps determine the need for PDA intervention

  • Provides baseline data


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PDA Intervention Plan : Organization, and Social Skills Assessment

Assess skills on this 1-7 independence rating scale

  • 7- Independent (no prompts needed)

  • 6- Modified independence (independent in certain situations)

  • 5- Low assistance (prompts needed in 2/10 attempts)

  • 4- Moderate assistance (prompts needed in 4/10 attempts)

  • 3- Moderate/high assistance (prompts needed in 6/10 attempts)

  • 2- High assistance (prompts needed in 8/10 attempts)

  • 1- Total prompting & assistance


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Appointments: Day, Time, Event Organization, and Social Skills


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Appointments Organization, and Social Skills

  • How well does your client keep track of appointments?

  • Could a device assist with this issue?

  • What is your client’s current organization method?

  • Would a device help for keeping track of appointments?


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Contacts: Name, Address, Phone, Other Organization, and Social Skills


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Contacts Organization, and Social Skills

  • How well does your client keep track of contacts?

  • Could a device assist with this issue?

  • What is your client’s current organization method?

  • Would a device help for keeping track of contacts?


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To Do List: Daily, Weekly, Long-Term Organization, and Social Skills


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To Do List Organization, and Social Skills

  • How well does your client plan or follow to do lists?

  • Could a device assist with this issue?

  • What is your client’s current organization method?

  • Would a device help for planning and following to do lists?


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Calculator, Expense List Organization, and Social Skills


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Calculator, Expense List Organization, and Social Skills

  • How well does your client keep track of finances or use a calculator?

  • Could a device assist with this issue?

  • What is your client’s current organization method?

  • Would a device help for use of a calculator or expense list?


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Self-reminders: Voice or Written Memos Organization, and Social Skills


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Self- reminders Organization, and Social Skills

  • How well does your client keep track of reminders/memos?

  • Could a device assist with this issue?

  • What is your client’s current organization method?

  • Would a device help for self-reminders?


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Camera Organization, and Social Skills


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Camera Organization, and Social Skills

  • How well does your client keep track of personal events?

  • Could a device assist with this issue?

  • What is your client’s current organization method?

  • Would a device help for a record of personal events?


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Intervention Plan: Identify Environment, Partner, Opportunities

Provides Negotiations Points for interventionist and client/significant others

  • Choose environments,

  • Choose partners

  • Choose opportunities for use within environs

    • Remindering (Meds, Appts. Assignments)

    • Planning the day

    • Planning and monitoring expenses

    • Interacting with healthcare system, friends, family

    • Providing access to portable computer functions – Office, email


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PDA Intervention Plan: OpportunitiesIdentify Functions

  • Identify useful functions and one function to target for intervention

    • Calendar

    • Alarm

    • Contacts

    • To Do List

    • Notes/memos to self – written, oral

    • Calculator

    • Camera

    • Games

    • Computer functions

    • Microsoft Office


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PDA Intervention Plan: OpportunitiesIdentify Outcomes

  • Identify initial outcomes, formulate a measurable outcome

  • Examples

    • Responds once each day to one alarm in a timely fashion

      • Present level, moderate assistance, prompts needed 4/10 opportunities

      • Projected level: Low assistance, prompts needed 2/10

    • Completes one chore once each day

      • Present level, Low assistance, prompts needed 2/10 opps

      • Projected level: modified independence, independent at home with trash

    • Subtracts amount spent from total amount to determine change

      • Present level, Moderate/high assistance, prompts needed 6/10 opps

      • Projected level: Moderate assistance, prompts needed 4/10


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PDA Intervention Plan: Identify Schedule Opportunities

  • Schedule – ideally should be within the PDA/Smartphone

  • Days and Times each opportunity will occur

  • Person responsible for task completion should be part of the scheduling negotiation

  • Adjust schedule as needed

  • Important but often neglected step


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PDA Intervention Planning: Monitoring Plan Opportunities

  • Identify progress on the plan

  • Identify what needs to change – consider environment, partner, opportunity-function , outcome, or schedule as potentially needing change

    • Collect views of client

    • Collect views of partner

  • Negotiate a new plan based on data collected


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Mean Rate of Responding Across Condition (Baseline, Planner, Dell, Palm)

100

90

80

70

60

Weeks 1-4

Mean Rate of Responding

50

Weeks 5-8

40

30

20

10

0

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

ID/TBI

ID/TBI

ID/TBI

ID/TBI

Baseline

Planner

Dell

Palm

Condition by Population

Mean Rate of Responding Across Condition


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Key Findings for Rate of Responding: Dell, Palm)

  • Palm PDA was the most effective reminder method across groups

    • School-age TBI/ID site had greatest mean rate of response across sites and conditions with Palm

    • Adult TBI site had next highest rate with Palm

  • Planner was the least effective

  • Reminder systems were most effective with school-age TBI/ID and adult TBI sites


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Key Findings for Adults with TBI: Dell, Palm)

  • Participants:

    • Performed best with PDA

    • Performed better with simple list than PDA

    • Showed no difference between phone call and daily task

    • Performed better with Palm than Dell

  • Gender, age, and cognitive test performance levels were not predictive


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Key Findings for Students with ID or TBI: Dell, Palm)

  • Participants:

    • Performed best with PDA

    • Performed better with simple list than PDA

    • Showed no difference between phone call and daily task

    • Had similar performance with Dell and Palm

    • Performed 15% better in least restrictive environment

    • Were 50% better with an A.M. reminder

  • Gender, age, diagnosis, and cognitive test performance levels were not predictive


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Key findings for adults with ID: Dell, Palm)

  • More independence with electronic

  • Relieved caregiver burden

  • Performed best with A.M. reminder

  • Better performance in non-sheltered workshops due to more environmental opportunities


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Case Studies Dell, Palm)


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Three Studies Dell, Palm)

  • 35 - Alarm Study participants

  • 07 - Multiple Function participants

  • 02 - SmartPhone Studies


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Case 1: RW Dell, Palm)

  • Female

  • Age: 19

  • Sustained TBI in car crash

  • School Placement: Educ. Services through a county MRDD program

  • Device: Palm


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RW – Video Dell, Palm)




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Used pre and post training: Dell, Palm)

Calendar

Responding to alarms

Setting alarms

Accessing data

Contact List

Accessing data

Entering data

Task List

Accessing data

Calculator

Games

Solitaire

Camera

Computer Functions

Hot sync

RW: Multiple Function Study

Did not use pre or post:

  • MS Office

  • Personalization options


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RW: Multiple Function Study Dell, Palm)

New Functions:

  • Task List

    • Entering data

  • Notes

    • Text

    • Voice

  • Games

    • Tetris

  • Beaming

  • Computer Functions

    • File upload



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RW – Cell Dell, Palm)Contacts Video


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RW Phase 3– Smartphone Functions Dell, Palm)

  • Additional functions used at end of phase 3:

    • Phone

    • Calendar

      • Entering data

    • Games

      • Jawbreaker

  • New features used:

    • Ring tones

    • Screen settings

    • Background


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Subject Description: MB Dell, Palm)

  • Male

  • Age 14

  • Intellectual Disability

  • Special education classroom/middle school

  • Limited literacy skills; good verbal skills

  • Dell Pocket PC




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Used pre and post training: Dell, Palm)

Calendar

Responding to alarms

Games

Jawbreaker

MB: Multiple Function Study

Did not use pre or post:

  • Task List

  • Computer Functions

  • MS Office

  • Personalization options


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MB: Multiple Function Study Dell, Palm)

New Functions:

  • Calendar

    • Setting alarms

    • Accessing data

  • Contact List

    • Accessing data

    • Notes

    • Text

    • Voice

  • Calculator

  • Games

    • Tetris

  • Beaming




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MB Phase 3 – Smartphone Functions Dell, Palm)

  • Additional functions used at end of phase 3:

    • Phone

    • Calendar

      • Entering data (with written prompts)

    • Contact List

      • Entering data (with written prompts)

    • Task List

      • Accessing data

    • Camera

  • New features used:

    • Ring tones

    • Background





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Tips for Interventionists Dell, Palm)

  • Acquire knowledge and experience about devices

  • Client response to device prompts first, then data entry

  • Involve the intervention team in the use of the device.

  • Begin with frequent intervention decrease sessions over time

  • Clients can wear the device to prevent loss or theft.

  • Get feedback from the team and your client on a regular basis.

  • Encourage exploration of device functions, including games.

  • Use of device is not limited to work-tasks and can be used for fun.


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Previously Used: Multiple Loose Leaf Binder Dell, Palm)

Successful with Palm

Testimonial from Adult with TBI




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PDA to Smart Phones a Logical Next Step for Dell, Palm)Universal Access/Design

Everybody's Gotta Have One!



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