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GENETIC ENGINEERING. INTRODUCTION. For thousands of years people have changed the characteristics of plants and animals. Through selective breeding Through the exploitation of mutations

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GENETIC ENGINEERING

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GENETIC ENGINEERING


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INTRODUCTION

  • For thousands of years people have changed the characteristics of plants and animals.

    • Through selective breeding

    • Through the exploitation of mutations

  • Since breeders have been able to take advantage of naturally occurring mutations, they have dreamed of being able to artificially create mutations.


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  • The ability to design new varieties of plants and animals has now become a reality through genetic engineering

  • Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of genes within a cell or organism to bring about a change in the genetic makeup of an organism

  • There are several methods of gene manipulation currently used, most of which include the removal and insertion of genetic material into organisms


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GENE MAPPING

  • One of the most important processes in gene manipulation is that of finding the location of genes on the chromosomes

  • Gene mapping involves the finding of the particular location on the strand of DNA that contains the genes that control certain traits

  • The arrangement of the nitrogen bases (A,T,C,G) on the molecule of DNA determine the genetic code


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  • The process of mapping the genes on the strands of DNA involves the use of molecules that act as probes

    • The probes attach themselves to certain parts of the DNA where the nucleotides join each other

    • The probe looks for combinations of where the nitrogen bases join in certain sequences

    • Once the probe locates the nucleotides, the sequences of Adenine(A), thymine(T), Cytosine(C) and Guanine(G) can be listed in a map


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  • Although coding is extremely complex, the code is the same in all organisms.

    • The nucleotides only pair with certain other nucleotides.

    • The pairing of nucleotides is the phenomena that makes genetic engineering possible.


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Gene splicing

  • Once the location of the DNA sequence has been located, scientists can use restriction enzymes to separate the DNA at a particular location on the gene

  • Once the pieces of DNA are removed other DNA can be spliced in or recombined with the remaining DNA

    • This results in recombinant DNA


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  • The new form of DNA will reproduce with the new characteristics of the introduced DNA

  • The first genetic splicing was done using bacteria

    • Bacteria has plasmids (circular shaped pieces of DNA) that float freely in the cell’s fluid

    • By selection the proper enzyme, scientists cut out part of the plasmid DNA and insert DNA from another organism

    • The DNA replicates and the new bacteria produced from the spliced DNA holds the desired characteristics


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    • One of the first uses of gene splicing was the manufacture of human insulin

      • Scientists isolated the DNA sequence that regulates the production of insulin

      • The DNA segment is spliced into the DNA of the E.coli bacteria

      • The bacteria carrying the DNA for insulin production reproduces and passes the capability along to the next generation


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    • The bacteria are produced in large quantities through a process called fermentation

    • When the proper number of bacteria are reproduced, they are removed from the fermentation tanks and are taken apart to retrieve the insulin produced.

    • The insulin is then separated, purified, and the remains of the bacteria are destroyed

    • This procedure provides a ready relatively inexpensive supply of insulin for those people who need it


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    • Bacteria have become the manufacturing centers for many substances that have made the lives of humans better and more productive

      • Vaccines

      • Hormones

    • Bovine somatotropin (BST)

      • A relatively recent agricultural innovation using genetic engineering


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    • A hormone composed of protein that that is produced by the animal’s pituitary gland

    • Helps control the production of milk by assisting the regulation of nutrients into the production of milk or fat

    • Supplementary BST causes the cow to produce less fat and more milk

    • By splicing genetic material into E. coli bacteria the hormone can be produced at relatively low cost


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    Tissue culture

    • Tissue culture- the process of regenerating plants from a single cell

    • Through the introduction of new DNA into a single cell, a completely new plant of different genetic makeup can be grown


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