A nice and sounding vision of global science :
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“A world where science is used for the benefit of all, excellence in science is valued and scientific knowledge is effectively linked to policy-making. In such a world, universal and equitable access to scientific data and information is a reality and all countries have the scientific capacity to use these ….” ICSU
But we live in a vastly unequal world …
Urgency of using the achievements of the scientific endeavour to adress human needs, to promote sustainable development and to contribute to the building of knowledge societies
for instance : Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge, World Conference on Science, 1999;
Millenium Development Goals
Science education and PCST are essential for building endogenous scientific capacity and strengthening democracy by means of an active and informed citizenship
(The relationship between science and society will centrally influence the directions and practices of science …)
Are there language issues ?
… endogenous scientific capacity and strengthening democracy by means of an active and informed citizenshipbut do they matter at all for S&T?
Source : the UNESCO Courier, april 2000 endogenous scientific capacity and strengthening democracy by means of an active and informed citizenship
Quoted from: Wonderful Life: the Burgess Shale and nature of history. N.Y.: Norton, 1989. p. 16.
Index translationum ?
Spanish Spanish Spanish diverse languages)
French French French
Portuguese Portuguese Portuguese
German German German
Japanese Japanese Japanese
Dutch Italian Italian
Slovenian Slovenian Hebrew
Hebrew Swedish Slovenian
Swedish Korean Hungarian
Source : Human Development Report 2004 diverse languages)
… widen the Gap between Scientists,
Science Educators and Civil Society ?
… create new barriers to Science Education
and the PCST ?
Massarani, L. et al.Science journalism in Latin America: How the scientific
information from a scientific source is settled when it is transformed into a
Paper presented at the 9th International Conference on PCST, Seoul, 2006
They analyzed all the stories published by the science section of main newspapers
from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil during April 2004, having as
primary source scientific papers published by the journals Science and Nature.
“5. Mistakes, negligence, and incongruities
We identified some mistakes, negligence,and incongruities in the analyzed stories.
Most of them are related to figures or not accurate translations.”
“Using the national languages—Sinhala and Tamil—as the media of instruction in
schools and universities has mixed blessings. Each language has its own rich
literature and each is amenable to communicating complex ideas and philosophies.
However, when used for scientific and technological communication, they suffer from a
lack of adequate vocabulary. (…) [and] translating the latest scientific and
technological literature and printing it for a small national market is a costly and
There are very few authors who write books and authoritative papers in the national
languages. In neighbouring India, where Tamil is the mother tongue of a large
population, higher education and research publications are in English.”
C.L.V. Jayatilleke, “Sri Lanka”, in Science education for contemporary society:
problems, issues and dilemas. Final Report of the International Workshop on the
Reform in the Teaching of Science and Technology at Primary and Secondary
Level in Asia : Comparative References to Europe
Beijing, 27–31 March 2000
'Local and indigenous knowledge' refers to the cumulative and complex bodies of knowledge, know-how, practices and representations that are maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interactions with the natural environment.
(other terms include: traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) ; ethnoscience / ethonobiology / ethnobotany / ethnozoology, etc)
Vernacular languages are part and parcel of these cognitive
systems. Indigenous languages participate in the
creation, encoding, sustaining, and transmission of cultural
knowledge and patterns of behaviour.
The LINKS project (UNESCO)
"Nā te waka ō tātou tūpuna i hari mai ki konei kia kaua tērā e ngaro i a tātou.Ki te ngaro ana tērā kaupapa i a tātou, tekateka noa iho tātou."- Tohunga Tārai Waka Hekenukumaingaiwi Puhipi
"We must not forget that it was the canoe that brought our ancestors to this land.If we were to lose this part of our culture, we lose our heritage."- Maori master canoe builder Hekenukumai Busby
He shares his knowledge on a variety of subjects including ways to prepare and select the right tree to build a canoe and how the reflection and diffraction of ocean swells allow navigators to detect distant islands
Need of a process of language intellectualisation (corpus planning, status planning), particularly in the sphere of S&T
Kalima ( planning, status planning), particularly in the sphere of S&Tكلمة) project to translate books into Arabic
The Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage has funded a project that will to start with, translate 100 seminal works in science, philosophy, and other areas into Arabic. That includes works by Isaac Newton, Stephen Hawking, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Stephen Jay Gould, and James Watson.
The project, called Kalima (“word” in Arabic), is an attempt to address the fact that, although there are more than a quarter of a billion Arabic speakers worldwide, only a few hundred books are translated into Arabic each year.
The Asian Multilingual Thesaurus of Geosciences (AMTG) was created
within the framework of the South-East Asian Networkfor a Geological
Information System (SANGIS) to respond to regional difficulties in using
keywords in English for geological and geophysical information
The AMTG’s 5,867 geoscientific terms in English and French have
Been translated into Khmer, Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean,
Lao, Malaysian, Thai and Vietnamese.
multilingual (diversity : creativity and innovation) and interlingual (universality and international character of science)
But what kind of interlingualism ?
Source : David Graddol. English Next (2007)
Eoanthropus dawsoni (…and what about Mandaren ?)
Eoanthropus dawsoni (portrait 1915)
IUBS Commission for Biological Education (…and what about Mandaren ?)
(CBE) & UNESCO Programme on Science
and Technology Education
Bioliteracy through a set of interesting
hands-on activities to learn about the living
world around the children (“observing birds”,
“tree charting”, and so on)