The english renaissance celebrating humanity
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The English Renaissance: Celebrating Humanity. 1485-1625. Life in Elizabethan and Jacobean England. London expanded greatly as a city. People moved in from rural areas and from other European countries. Busy and crowded; lots of commerce, craftsmen. Strict class system.

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The English Renaissance: Celebrating Humanity

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The english renaissance celebrating humanity

The English Renaissance:Celebrating Humanity

1485-1625


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Life in Elizabethan and Jacobean England

London expanded greatly as a city

People moved in from rural areas and from other European countries

Busy and crowded; lots of commerce, craftsmen

Strict class system

Not a clean or safe city—“The Thames was a beautiful sewer” (224) and disease and criminals ran rampant

Grew into substantial port and admired European city

Southwark: suburb known for its “vice” – theaters, gaming, prostitution, etc.


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Renaissance= rebirth

  • Rebirth of:

  • interest in learning, especially that of ancient Greece and Rome

  • civilization in general

  • arts and sciences

Reaction to “Dark Ages” of medieval Europe


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Historically speaking…

UK represent!

Exploration by sea: John Cabot, 1497

Religious rifts:

New sense of nationalism prompted many to question ethics in and teachings of Church

Questioning of Papal authority and Scripture

Erasmus (Dutch) – version of New Testament

Thomas More – Utopia

Protestant Reformation sparked by Martin Luther’s 95 theses


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

The Monarchy:

strengthening themselves and the nation

Henry VII:

  • Catholic

  • Restorer of national economy and prestige of

  • monarchy

Henry VIII:

  • Catholic, at first…

  • Supports Pope against religious dissenters (“Defender of

  • the Faith”)

  • But…

  • Church’s refusal to annul his marriage leads him to break from Catholic faith

  • Dissolves Church ownership of property, monasteries

  • Has Thomas More executed for refusing to renounce Catholic faith

  • Marries 6 times

  • Fathers Elizabeth and Mary; has a son, Edward, with his 3rd wife, Jane Seymour


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

More bangin’ Tudor action…

Edward, Henry VIII’s son, rules from the ages of 9-15 (whatever; that’s like a 7th grader ruling your country)

  • Parliament drastically changes religious practices

  • English replaces Latin

  • Book of Common Prayer required in public worship

England is on its way to becoming a Protestant nation until…

We’re back, baby!

Mary I takes throne

  • Restores Roman practices to Church of England

  • Restores authority of Pope over English Church

  • Known as “Bloody Mary” for ordering execution of about 300 Protestants

And I could use a drink. Make it a…hmm…

Mary rules for 5 years, and then…


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Cate BlanchettElizabeth I takes the throne!

  • Classically educated; patron of the arts

  • Reinstated monarch’s rule over Church of England, ending religious turmoil

  • Established climate of religious compromise

  • Known as one of the best rulers in English history

  • Spoiler alert! Dies in 1603

Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for the Elizabethan period…

Elizabeth… arrgh…

The Mary Stuart problem:

  • Catholics considered Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, rightful heir to throne of England (marriage annulment issues)

  • Imprisoned by cousin, Elizabeth, for 18 years

  • Hatched numerous Catholic plots against her

  • Elizabeth let her live, punished Catholics

  • Parliament insisted on beheading Mary in 1587

I rule!

(literally and figuratively)


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Life after Elizabeth…the Stuarts

James I (well, James VI of Scotland, but James I of England)

  • Son of Mary Stuart

  • Named by Elizabeth as her successor

  • Protestant

  • “Jacobean” era (from Latin for James)

  • Expanded England’s position as world power (colony in VA)

    • Believed in “divine right” of monarchs

    • Power struggles with Parliament

    • Persecuted Puritans (who migrated to Plymouth Colony)

Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for Jamestown…

Smell you later, Jimmy!

I may have divine right, but this outfit is just wrong…


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Finally, the good stuff…

Renaissance Poetry

Lyric over narrative poetry

  • Sonnet cycle: A series of sonnets, usually fit loosely together to form a story

  • Heavy hitters: Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Shakespeare

  • Two major rhyme schemes: Petrarchan/Italian and Shakespearean

  • Shakespearean rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg

Psst! Lyric poem: a short poem with one speaker (not necessarily the poet) who expresses thought and feeling.

Sonnets! Yeah!

Psst! Sonnet: 14 lines, iambic pentameter, various rhyme schemes. Word!

Many sonnets consist of 8 lines setting up one idea, 4 lines responding to that idea, and a concluding couplet at the end. Rock and roll!


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Pastoral poetry

  • Idealized rustic simplicity of rural life

  • Heavy hitters: Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter Raleigh

I’m a poet, soldier, explorer, historian and member of the Royal Court. Phew! It’s tiring being a true Renaissance man!

Hey, I wonder if that’s where they got the name for Raleigh, NC…


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Renaissance Drama

Turned away from religious focus and toward classical Greek and Roman tragedies and dramas

Christopher Marlowe: First major dramatist

(1580s)

Shakespeare (1564-1616)

  • Started as actor

  • Famous playwright by 1592

    • 37 Plays: most can be categorized as tragedy, comedy, or history

      • Deep understanding of what it means to be human helps maintain popularity

People say that if I’d lived past 30 I might have eclipsed Shakespeare as England’s greatest playwright! Dang!

And I might have gotten credit for stuff you wrote! Too bad, suckah!


The english renaissance celebrating humanity

Renaissance Prose

Which is the more satisfying bacon: pioneering English author or tasty breakfast meat?

Not as popular as poetry

Heavy hitters:

Sidney, Raleigh and Thomas Nashe

Sir Francis Bacon: essays, science, philosophy

King James Bible

  • Translated Latin Bible into English

  • Huge achievement—probably most important in English Renaissance

  • 54 scholars worked 7 years!

  • Influential, used to this day


Important dates

1485: Thomas More publishes Utopia

1534: Church of England established

1535: Thomas More executed

1549: The Book of Common Prayer issued

1558: Elizabeth I becomes Queen

1563: 20,000 Londoners die in Plague

1564: Shakespeare is born!

Important Dates


Important dates cont

1594: Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet

1599: The Globe Theater opens

1603: Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I becomes King of England.

1606: Guy Fawkes executed for Gunpowder Plot

1607: Royal Colony of Jamestown established

1611: King James Bible published

1620: Pilgrims land on Plymouth Rock

1625: King James I dies.

Important Dates (Cont.)


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