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Propaganda & Persuasion Persuasion A communication process to influence others Recipient voluntarily adopts new behavior or point of view Mutually satisfying Both persuader & persuadee stand to have needs fulfilled Propaganda

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Propaganda l.jpg

Propaganda

& Persuasion


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Persuasion

  • A communication process to influence others

  • Recipient voluntarily adopts new behavior or point of view

  • Mutually satisfying

  • Both persuader & persuadee stand to have needs fulfilled


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Propaganda

Deliberate & systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate congitions & direct behavior

Goal is to further cause of propagandist

No concern for well-being of recipient

Though propagandist may profess concern


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Propaganda

Ultimate goal is to control public opinion & manipulate behavior

  • Voting

  • Buying products

  • Joining an organization

  • Fighting for a cause

  • Etc.


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Propaganda often involves

  • Concealed purpose

  • Concealed identity

  • Control of information flow


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Propaganda devices:

  • Play on emotion

  • Avoid objectivity

  • Discourage examination of evidence

  • Often rely on symbols

  • Are most effective when there is a vacuum of info around an issue


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Historically effective elements of propaganda

  • Charismatic figures

  • Heavy symbolism

  • Simple & incessant moral philosophy

  • Understanding of audience needs

  • Reliance on image & emotion


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Propaganda throughout history

  • Generally in support of war or religion

  • Architecture & public monuments

    • Prestige & dynastic legitimacy


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Alexander the Great

  • Symbolism of marriage

    Caesars of Imperial Rome

  • “corporate symbolism”

  • Art, architecture, literature, coinage


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Religious propaganda

  • Often aimed at positive social or political purpose

  • Parables & metaphors

    • Eye of the camel, shepherd & flock

  • Crusades: religion & war


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Forms of propaganda

White propaganda

  • Source is correctly identified

  • Info is accurate

  • Attempts to build credibility


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Examples of white propaganda

  • Voice of America

  • National holidays

  • Olympics


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Black Propaganda

  • Credited to a false source

  • Spreads lies, fabrications & deceptions

    Examples of black propaganda

  • WWII radio

  • leaflets


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Gray Propaganda

  • Source may or may not be correctly identified

  • Accuracy of info is uncertain

  • Examples of gray propaganda

  • Distorted statistics

  • Unsupported advertising claims


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Disinformation(black propaganda)

  • False, incomplete or misleading info fed to targeted individual, group or country

  • News stories designed to weaken adversaries, planted by foreign agent journalists


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Subpropaganda(facilitative communication)

  • Spreading of unfamiliar doctrine to build base of support for future use

  • Builds friendly atmosphere & keeps lines of communication open for eventual use of propaganda tactics

  • Often, though not always, aimed at news media


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Hate propaganda(atrocity stories)

Sometimes true

But often exaggerated and/or fabricated

  • Massacre

  • Mutilation

  • Mistreatment


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Coercive Propaganda

Brainwashing of prisoners

Integration Propaganda

Maintains the status quo

Agitation Propaganda

Arouse support for a cause


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7 Common Propaganda Devices

Name calling

  • Giving an ideal a bad label

    Glittering generality

  • Association with a “virtue” word

    Transfer

  • Of respect & authority


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Testimonial

  • Respected or hated person speaks for an issue

    Plain Folks

  • “of the people”

    Card Stacking

  • Best or worse case

    Band Wagon

  • “everybody is doing it”


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Two more common devices

Fear Appeals

  • Disaster will ensue

    Euphemisms

  • “Nice” words


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Reasons for growth in use of propaganda in 19th & 20th centuries

  • Development of democratic institutions

  • Improvements in transportation & communication

  • Growth of mass media

    • bypasses traditional socializing institutions


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News Media & Propaganda centuries

  • Whenever possible, propagandists attempt to control the news media.

  • The role of the news media in propaganda varies according to country and culture.

  • In an open society, the news media are more often channels of propaganda than actual propagandists.


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