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Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training Chapter 4 Intro Goals of fitness training Flexibility Muscular strength, _______________ , & power Cardiorespiratory endurance These goals are important for athletic success Also important to ___________ injury Program Design - Periodization

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intro
Intro
  • Goals of fitness training
    • Flexibility
    • Muscular strength, _______________ , & power
    • Cardiorespiratory endurance
  • These goals are important for athletic success
  • Also important to ___________ injury
program design periodization
Program Design - Periodization
  • _________________- an approach to conditioning that systematically varies workouts throughout the year in order to bring about a peak
    • Reduces ___________
    • Reduces injury
program design periodization4
Program Design- Periodization
  • Using periodization
    • Establish individual needs
      • ____________ vs weaknesses
      • Past injuries?
    • Establish needs of the sport
      • Aerobic or ____________?
      • Upper body, lower body, both?
      • Strength, power, endurance?
    • Establish season schedule
      • Offseason, preseason, in-season, postseason
program design periodization5
Program Design - Periodization
  • Establish phases based on the ___________ season
    • General Prep Phase – Offseason
    • _________________ Phase – Preseason
    • Competition Phase – In Season
    • Transition Phase – Postseason
periodization
Periodization
  • Establish ____________, intensity, and frequency
    • General Prep – Offseason
      • Hypertrophy to Strength
      • Uses general strengthening exercises
      • Volume: moderate –high (6-12 reps)
      • Intensity: moderate (70-85% of 1 RM)
    • Special Prep - Preseason
      • Strength to _______________
      • Uses sport specific exercises
      • Volume: low- moderate (3-8 reps)
      • Intensity: high (80-90% of 1RM)
periodization7
Periodization
  • Competition – In Season
    • Power
    • The focus should be on maintaining ______________________ built during the offseason & preseason
    • Exercises should be limited to only the most important
    • Frequency drops to 1-2 sessions per week to allow for game schedule and adequate recovery
    • Volume: very low (1-3 reps)
    • Intensity: very high (90-100% of 1 RM)
  • Transition – ____________________
    • Active recovery, endurance
    • Fun drills, games, etc
    • Volume: very high (15-20 reps)
    • Intensity: low (enough to maintain fitness level)
program design cross training
Program Design - Cross Training
  • ________ ___________- involves substitution of alternative activities that have some carryover value to sport
    • Useful in the postseason & offseason to maintain fitness and avoid boredom
    • May allow injured areas normally used in the sport to ______ by working out other areas of the body
    • Ex. Swimmer may choose to jog or cycle
      • This provides necessary cardio
      • Emphasis is on lower body
      • If an injury existed in the shoulders (key for swimming) this would allow for rest
principles of strength conditioning
Principles of Strength & Conditioning
  • SAID Principle- Specific _____________ to Imposed Demands
    • When the body is subjected to stresses and overload, then it will gradually adapt to them over time
    • Stress should be gradual and not great enough to produce injury
  • Overload- introducing a workload to the body that is more _______________ than it is used to
  • Progression- increase of workload in a gradual manner to avoid injury
principles of strength conditioning10
Principles of Strength & Conditioning
  • Intensity- the level of ______________ of the workload
    • Typically expressed in rep max
  • Repetition- performing the exercise one time
  • Max Rep- the most weight that a person can do at one time
  • Set- a group of repetitions
  • Rest- period of recovery between _________ that allows the body’s energy systems to replenish with ATP
principles of strength conditioning11
Principles of Strength & Conditioning
  • ________________- the program should be designed to meet the needs of the specific sport
  • Individuality- the program should also be ___________ to each individual
    • Should address strengths, weaknesses, & previous injuries
components of the workout
Components of the Workout
  • 1) Warm-up
  • 2) Stretching
  • 3) ____________
  • 4) Cool-down
  • 5) Stretching
warm up
Warm-up
  • Warm-up- a period of ________ intensity exercise to prepare the body for the work-out
    • Duration: 10-30 minutes
      • The more advanced the exercise the longer the warm-up
  • Stretching should be performed _________ warm-up
warm up14
Warm-up
  • Reason for Warm-up
    • Prepares body for exercise
    • Reduces risk of injury
    • Improves performance
    • _______________ stretching
    • Muscles can contract more forcefully
    • Nervous Sys. responds faster
  • Physiology
    • Increases blood flow to muscles
    • Temperature of ___________ increases
    • More oxygen available to muscle
warm up15
Warm-up
  • Types
    • 1) General Warm-Up: increases _________ flow and temperature
      • Should produce a light sweat
      • Cardio exercise, sprints, light plyometrics
    • 2) _____________ Warm-Up: specific to the event
      • Performed after the general warm-up
      • Prepares for the sport/event
      • Medicine ball throws, plyometrics, sport drills
stretching
Stretching
  • ________________- the range of possible movement in a joint and its surrounding muscles
    • Affected by: ___________ Structure

Muscle Bulk

Connective Tissue

Age & Gender

stretching17
Stretching
  • Why is flexibility important?
    • _____________ Risk of Injury
    • Enhanced Muscular Performance
    • Relief from Muscular Soreness (lactic acid)
    • Improvement in _____________ & Low Back Pain
    • Relaxation and Stress Tension
stretching18
Stretching
  • When should you stretch?
    • _____________ activity
    • During activity when tightness is felt, or a cramp occurs
    • After activity
    • Extra stretching may be _______________ to those with range of motion deficits
stretching19
Stretching
  • Frequency & _________________
    • A stretch should be held for 20-30 seconds
    • That stretch should ideally be repeated 2-3 times
    • A stretch _________________ that incorporates all joints is best before activity, but extra stretches for the body areas that will be stressed the most are desirable
stretching20
Stretching
  • _____________ range of motion (AROM)
    • Joint movement via muscle contraction
    • Not a good indicator of tightness or looseness because it does not stress tissue
  • _____________ range of motion (PROM)
    • Motion of joint to end points without muscle contraction
stretching21
Stretching
  • Static Stretching- A stretch where an end point is reached and held
  • _______________ Stretching- A bouncing stretch in which the end point is not held
  • Dynamic Stretching- Establishing flexibility using sport-specific movements
  • Proprioceptive _________________ Facilitation- A stretch that uses neural receptors and altering contracting/relaxing in order to produce an increase in range of motion
types of strength conditioning activities
Types of Strength & Conditioning Activities
  • Strength
    • 1) Isometric Strengthening
    • 2) Progressive Resistive Exercises
    • 3) Core Stabilization
    • 4) ___________ Training
    • 5) Plyometrics
    • 6) Calisthenics
  • Conditioning
    • 1) Speed
    • 2) Agility
    • 3) ______________ Endurance
principles of strength training
Principles of Strength Training
  • Types of Strength
    • Strength- maximal amount of force one can exert
    • Power (___________ strength)- maximal force over short time (combo of speed & strength)
    • ________________ Strength- muscle force over a long time or many repetitions
principles of strength training24
Principles of Strength Training
  • Types of Muscle Contractions
    • _____________- contraction in which the muscle doesn’t change length
      • Ex. Pushing against a wall
      • Useful in early stages of rehab when reestablishing muscle contraction
    • Isotonic- contraction where muscle ____________ length
      • Contraction that we typically think of when we think of weight lifting
      • Concentric- contraction occurs while muscle shortens (up bicep curl)
      • Eccentric- contraction occurs while muscle lengthens (down bicep curl)
principles of strength training25
Principles of Strength Training
  • _______________- contraction in which a maximal amount of force is exerted over the entire range of motion
    • Muscles are not uniformly strong through the ROM
    • Isokinetic devices: hydraulic, air cylinder, or braking systems
      • As speed ________________ so does resistance
    • Usually used for rehab
principles of strength training26
Principles of Strength Training
  • Factors of Strength
    • 1) Size of the Muscle
      • Bigger muscles are ______________
    • 2) Number of Muscle Fibers
      • Born with a set amount of fibers
      • The more fibers = greater chance of hypertrophy
    • 3) Percentage of ___________ Type
      • Slow Twitch Muscle Fiber (Type I): generate small amount of force but are difficult to fatigue----endurance
      • Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber (Type II): generate large amount of force but are easily fatigued-------strength
      • All people have both, but only in certain percentages
      • Helps predict potential
principles of strength training27
Principles of Strength Training
  • 4) _____________ Arrangement
    • Angle of Pennation-
      • Angled muscle fibers can contract stronger
        • More sarcomeres in line
      • Straight muscle fibers can contract faster
  • 5) Neuromuscular Factors
    • ________________ of contraction
    • Recruitment of motor units
    • Most strength gains early on are due to these neurological factors
principles of strength training28
Principles of Strength Training
  • Physiology of Strength Gains
    • 1) _______________ Synthesis Theory
      • Exercise increases protein synthesis
      • Increases myosin & actin
      • Myofibril increases in size
    • 2) Microtear Theory
      • Exercise causes ______________ in the muscle
      • Muscle heals itself stronger than before
types of strength training isometric
Types of Strength Training- Isometric
  • 1) Isometric Exercise- exercise that involves a muscle contraction in which the muscle does not change ____________
    • Ex. pushing against a wall
    • Advantages
      • Isometrics are usually used in the early stages of rehab
      • No equipment is needed
      • Low risk of injury
    • Disadvantages
      • Only small _____________ gains are possible
      • Strength gains are made only in the position the exercise was performed in, not in the whole range of motion
types of strength training isometric30
Types of Strength Training- Isometric
  • (Disadvantages cont.)
    • _________________ cause a spike in blood pressure that could possibly result in a life-threatening cardiac condition
      • _________________ Effect- spike in blood pressure cause by isometrics
  • Implementation
    • Isometric contractions should be held for 10 seconds
types of strength training pre s
Types of Strength Training- PRE’s
  • Progressive _______________ Exercise- isotonic strengthening exercises in which force is generated as the muscle changes length
    • Equipment used:
      • Free weights = barbells w/ weight plates & dumbbells
      • Weight machines
      • Exercise bands (theraband)
    • Free weights vs. ______________
      • Free weights = better translation to sport
      • Free weights work stabilizer muscles and balance
      • Machines are safer and require less experience
types of strength training pre s32
Types of Strength Training- PRE’s
  • PRE Terminology
    • Repetition (rep)- number of times an exercise is repeated
    • Repetition max (rm)- the weight at which an exercise can be performed one repetition
    • Set- group of _______________
    • Intensity- amount of weight or resistance
    • Recovery period- rest in between sets
    • _____________- number of times an exercise is performed during the week
types of strength training pre s33
Types of Strength Training- PRE’s
  • __________________
    • _________________ must take place
    • Progression should be utilized to maximize benefits and reduce injury
    • Sets- three sets should be performed per workout
    • Repetitions-
      • Power- start at 10-12 rep range; progressively increase intensity as volume decreases
      • Endurance- start at 10-12 rep range; progressively increase volume as intensity decreases
    • Frequency- 2-3 times per week is a minimum to see results
types of strength training pre s34
Types of Strength Training- PRE’s

Upper Body

Lower body

  • Bench press- incline/decline
  • Military press
  • Bicep curls
  • Tricep extensions
  • Lat pull downs
  • Dumbbell flys
  • Rows
  • Front/lateral raises
  • Wrist curls/extensions
  • Squat
  • Leg press
  • Leg extensions
  • Leg curls
  • 4 way hip machine
  • Calf raisers
types of strength training core
Types of Strength Training- Core
  • ______ _________- exercises that focus on the abdomen, lower back, and pelvic regions
    • Should be part of any lifting program
    • Benefits
      • Improves posture
      • Reduces risk of lower back injury
      • Improves dynamic function for coordinated movements
types of strength training core36
Types of Strength Training- Core
  • Examples
    • Sit-ups & crunches
    • Back extensions
    • Leg lifts
    • Holds – prone/supine/side
    • Stability ball exercises
types of strength training circuit
Types of Strength Training- Circuit
  • Circuit Training- a series of exercise stations that consist of various combinations of weight training, ___________, calisthenics, and brief aerobic exercise
    • Advantages
      • Builds strength and _____________
      • Allows for a quick workout
      • Structured workout keeps people on task
    • Disadvantages
      • Does not really build cardio
      • Not good for inexperienced, weak, or disabled individuals who may require more time and attention
types of strength training circuit38
Types of Strength Training- Circuit
  • Implementation
    • 8-12 stations
    • 20-45 seconds in between stations
      • Allows for rest and time to switch
    • Circuit should be repeated 3 times
types of strength training plyometric
Types of Strength Training- Plyometric
  • ____________- technique that involves a rapid eccentric stretch of a muscle, followed immediately by an explosive concentric contraction
    • Methods:
      • Lower body: hops, bounds, & depth jumps (box)
      • Upper body: medicine ball tosses
    • Advantages
      • Builds explosive strength
      • Builds eccentric strength and thus ________ control
    • Disadvantages
      • Increased risk of injury
      • Requires athlete to have a pre-existing strength base
types of strength training plyometric40
Types of Strength Training- Plyometric
  • Implementation
    • 1-3 times per week depending on ___________
    • Reps:
      • Beginner: 80-100 per session
      • Intermediate: 100-120 per session
      • Advanced: 120-140 per session
      • As intensity increases; volume should decrease
types of strength training calisthenics
Types of Strength Training- Calisthenics
  • _____________________- exercise technique that involves using gravity and the body’s weight as resistance
    • Types:
      • Push-ups
      • Sit-ups
      • Crunches
      • Leg lifts
      • Holds
      • Back extensions,
      • Chin-ups
      • Pull-ups
      • Calf raises
      • Lunges
types of strength training calisthenics42
Types of Strength Training- Calisthenics
  • Advantages
    • Requires little experience
    • No spotter needed
    • Requires no equipment
  • Disadvantages
    • Does not build power
  • Implementation
    • 3 sets
    • 10 reps and ______________
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