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Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training Chapter 4 Intro Goals of fitness training Flexibility Muscular strength, _______________ , & power Cardiorespiratory endurance These goals are important for athletic success Also important to ___________ injury Program Design - Periodization

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Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training

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Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training

Chapter 4


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Intro

  • Goals of fitness training

    • Flexibility

    • Muscular strength, _______________ , & power

    • Cardiorespiratory endurance

  • These goals are important for athletic success

  • Also important to ___________ injury


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Program Design - Periodization

  • _________________- an approach to conditioning that systematically varies workouts throughout the year in order to bring about a peak

    • Reduces ___________

    • Reduces injury


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Program Design- Periodization

  • Using periodization

    • Establish individual needs

      • ____________ vs weaknesses

      • Past injuries?

    • Establish needs of the sport

      • Aerobic or ____________?

      • Upper body, lower body, both?

      • Strength, power, endurance?

    • Establish season schedule

      • Offseason, preseason, in-season, postseason


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Program Design - Periodization

  • Establish phases based on the ___________ season

    • General Prep Phase – Offseason

    • _________________ Phase – Preseason

    • Competition Phase – In Season

    • Transition Phase – Postseason


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Periodization

  • Establish ____________, intensity, and frequency

    • General Prep – Offseason

      • Hypertrophy to Strength

      • Uses general strengthening exercises

      • Volume: moderate –high (6-12 reps)

      • Intensity: moderate (70-85% of 1 RM)

    • Special Prep - Preseason

      • Strength to _______________

      • Uses sport specific exercises

      • Volume: low- moderate (3-8 reps)

      • Intensity: high (80-90% of 1RM)


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Periodization

  • Competition – In Season

    • Power

    • The focus should be on maintaining ______________________ built during the offseason & preseason

    • Exercises should be limited to only the most important

    • Frequency drops to 1-2 sessions per week to allow for game schedule and adequate recovery

    • Volume: very low (1-3 reps)

    • Intensity: very high (90-100% of 1 RM)

  • Transition – ____________________

    • Active recovery, endurance

    • Fun drills, games, etc

    • Volume: very high (15-20 reps)

    • Intensity: low (enough to maintain fitness level)


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Program Design - Cross Training

  • ________ ___________- involves substitution of alternative activities that have some carryover value to sport

    • Useful in the postseason & offseason to maintain fitness and avoid boredom

    • May allow injured areas normally used in the sport to ______ by working out other areas of the body

    • Ex. Swimmer may choose to jog or cycle

      • This provides necessary cardio

      • Emphasis is on lower body

      • If an injury existed in the shoulders (key for swimming) this would allow for rest


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Principles of Strength & Conditioning

  • SAID Principle- Specific _____________ to Imposed Demands

    • When the body is subjected to stresses and overload, then it will gradually adapt to them over time

    • Stress should be gradual and not great enough to produce injury

  • Overload- introducing a workload to the body that is more _______________ than it is used to

  • Progression- increase of workload in a gradual manner to avoid injury


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Principles of Strength & Conditioning

  • Intensity- the level of ______________ of the workload

    • Typically expressed in rep max

  • Repetition- performing the exercise one time

  • Max Rep- the most weight that a person can do at one time

  • Set- a group of repetitions

  • Rest- period of recovery between _________ that allows the body’s energy systems to replenish with ATP


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Principles of Strength & Conditioning

  • ________________- the program should be designed to meet the needs of the specific sport

  • Individuality- the program should also be ___________ to each individual

    • Should address strengths, weaknesses, & previous injuries


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Components of the Workout

  • 1) Warm-up

  • 2) Stretching

  • 3) ____________

  • 4) Cool-down

  • 5) Stretching


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Warm-up

  • Warm-up- a period of ________ intensity exercise to prepare the body for the work-out

    • Duration: 10-30 minutes

      • The more advanced the exercise the longer the warm-up

  • Stretching should be performed _________ warm-up


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Warm-up

  • Reason for Warm-up

    • Prepares body for exercise

    • Reduces risk of injury

    • Improves performance

    • _______________ stretching

    • Muscles can contract more forcefully

    • Nervous Sys. responds faster

  • Physiology

    • Increases blood flow to muscles

    • Temperature of ___________ increases

    • More oxygen available to muscle


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Warm-up

  • Types

    • 1) General Warm-Up: increases _________ flow and temperature

      • Should produce a light sweat

      • Cardio exercise, sprints, light plyometrics

    • 2) _____________ Warm-Up: specific to the event

      • Performed after the general warm-up

      • Prepares for the sport/event

      • Medicine ball throws, plyometrics, sport drills


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Stretching

  • ________________- the range of possible movement in a joint and its surrounding muscles

    • Affected by: ___________ Structure

      Muscle Bulk

      Connective Tissue

      Age & Gender


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Stretching

  • Why is flexibility important?

    • _____________ Risk of Injury

    • Enhanced Muscular Performance

    • Relief from Muscular Soreness (lactic acid)

    • Improvement in _____________ & Low Back Pain

    • Relaxation and Stress Tension


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Stretching

  • When should you stretch?

    • _____________ activity

    • During activity when tightness is felt, or a cramp occurs

    • After activity

    • Extra stretching may be _______________ to those with range of motion deficits


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Stretching

  • Frequency & _________________

    • A stretch should be held for 20-30 seconds

    • That stretch should ideally be repeated 2-3 times

    • A stretch _________________ that incorporates all joints is best before activity, but extra stretches for the body areas that will be stressed the most are desirable


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Stretching

  • _____________ range of motion (AROM)

    • Joint movement via muscle contraction

    • Not a good indicator of tightness or looseness because it does not stress tissue

  • _____________ range of motion (PROM)

    • Motion of joint to end points without muscle contraction


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Stretching

  • Static Stretching- A stretch where an end point is reached and held

  • _______________ Stretching- A bouncing stretch in which the end point is not held

  • Dynamic Stretching- Establishing flexibility using sport-specific movements

  • Proprioceptive _________________ Facilitation- A stretch that uses neural receptors and altering contracting/relaxing in order to produce an increase in range of motion


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Types of Strength & Conditioning Activities

  • Strength

    • 1) Isometric Strengthening

    • 2) Progressive Resistive Exercises

    • 3) Core Stabilization

    • 4) ___________ Training

    • 5) Plyometrics

    • 6) Calisthenics

  • Conditioning

    • 1) Speed

    • 2) Agility

    • 3) ______________ Endurance


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Principles of Strength Training

  • Types of Strength

    • Strength- maximal amount of force one can exert

    • Power (___________ strength)- maximal force over short time (combo of speed & strength)

    • ________________ Strength- muscle force over a long time or many repetitions


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Principles of Strength Training

  • Types of Muscle Contractions

    • _____________- contraction in which the muscle doesn’t change length

      • Ex. Pushing against a wall

      • Useful in early stages of rehab when reestablishing muscle contraction

    • Isotonic- contraction where muscle ____________ length

      • Contraction that we typically think of when we think of weight lifting

      • Concentric- contraction occurs while muscle shortens (up bicep curl)

      • Eccentric- contraction occurs while muscle lengthens (down bicep curl)


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Principles of Strength Training

  • _______________- contraction in which a maximal amount of force is exerted over the entire range of motion

    • Muscles are not uniformly strong through the ROM

    • Isokinetic devices: hydraulic, air cylinder, or braking systems

      • As speed ________________ so does resistance

    • Usually used for rehab


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Principles of Strength Training

  • Factors of Strength

    • 1) Size of the Muscle

      • Bigger muscles are ______________

    • 2) Number of Muscle Fibers

      • Born with a set amount of fibers

      • The more fibers = greater chance of hypertrophy

    • 3) Percentage of ___________ Type

      • Slow Twitch Muscle Fiber (Type I): generate small amount of force but are difficult to fatigue----endurance

      • Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber (Type II): generate large amount of force but are easily fatigued-------strength

      • All people have both, but only in certain percentages

      • Helps predict potential


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Principles of Strength Training

  • 4) _____________ Arrangement

    • Angle of Pennation-

      • Angled muscle fibers can contract stronger

        • More sarcomeres in line

      • Straight muscle fibers can contract faster

  • 5) Neuromuscular Factors

    • ________________ of contraction

    • Recruitment of motor units

    • Most strength gains early on are due to these neurological factors


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Principles of Strength Training

  • Physiology of Strength Gains

    • 1) _______________ Synthesis Theory

      • Exercise increases protein synthesis

      • Increases myosin & actin

      • Myofibril increases in size

    • 2) Microtear Theory

      • Exercise causes ______________ in the muscle

      • Muscle heals itself stronger than before


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Types of Strength Training- Isometric

  • 1) Isometric Exercise- exercise that involves a muscle contraction in which the muscle does not change ____________

    • Ex. pushing against a wall

    • Advantages

      • Isometrics are usually used in the early stages of rehab

      • No equipment is needed

      • Low risk of injury

    • Disadvantages

      • Only small _____________ gains are possible

      • Strength gains are made only in the position the exercise was performed in, not in the whole range of motion


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Types of Strength Training- Isometric

  • (Disadvantages cont.)

    • _________________ cause a spike in blood pressure that could possibly result in a life-threatening cardiac condition

      • _________________ Effect- spike in blood pressure cause by isometrics

  • Implementation

    • Isometric contractions should be held for 10 seconds


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Types of Strength Training- PRE’s

  • Progressive _______________ Exercise- isotonic strengthening exercises in which force is generated as the muscle changes length

    • Equipment used:

      • Free weights = barbells w/ weight plates & dumbbells

      • Weight machines

      • Exercise bands (theraband)

    • Free weights vs. ______________

      • Free weights = better translation to sport

      • Free weights work stabilizer muscles and balance

      • Machines are safer and require less experience


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Types of Strength Training- PRE’s

  • PRE Terminology

    • Repetition (rep)- number of times an exercise is repeated

    • Repetition max (rm)- the weight at which an exercise can be performed one repetition

    • Set- group of _______________

    • Intensity- amount of weight or resistance

    • Recovery period- rest in between sets

    • _____________- number of times an exercise is performed during the week


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Types of Strength Training- PRE’s

  • __________________

    • _________________ must take place

    • Progression should be utilized to maximize benefits and reduce injury

    • Sets- three sets should be performed per workout

    • Repetitions-

      • Power- start at 10-12 rep range; progressively increase intensity as volume decreases

      • Endurance- start at 10-12 rep range; progressively increase volume as intensity decreases

    • Frequency- 2-3 times per week is a minimum to see results


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Types of Strength Training- PRE’s

Upper Body

Lower body

  • Bench press- incline/decline

  • Military press

  • Bicep curls

  • Tricep extensions

  • Lat pull downs

  • Dumbbell flys

  • Rows

  • Front/lateral raises

  • Wrist curls/extensions

  • Squat

  • Leg press

  • Leg extensions

  • Leg curls

  • 4 way hip machine

  • Calf raisers


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Types of Strength Training- Core

  • ______ _________- exercises that focus on the abdomen, lower back, and pelvic regions

    • Should be part of any lifting program

    • Benefits

      • Improves posture

      • Reduces risk of lower back injury

      • Improves dynamic function for coordinated movements


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Types of Strength Training- Core

  • Examples

    • Sit-ups & crunches

    • Back extensions

    • Leg lifts

    • Holds – prone/supine/side

    • Stability ball exercises


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Types of Strength Training- Circuit

  • Circuit Training- a series of exercise stations that consist of various combinations of weight training, ___________, calisthenics, and brief aerobic exercise

    • Advantages

      • Builds strength and _____________

      • Allows for a quick workout

      • Structured workout keeps people on task

    • Disadvantages

      • Does not really build cardio

      • Not good for inexperienced, weak, or disabled individuals who may require more time and attention


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Types of Strength Training- Circuit

  • Implementation

    • 8-12 stations

    • 20-45 seconds in between stations

      • Allows for rest and time to switch

    • Circuit should be repeated 3 times


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Types of Strength Training- Plyometric

  • ____________- technique that involves a rapid eccentric stretch of a muscle, followed immediately by an explosive concentric contraction

    • Methods:

      • Lower body: hops, bounds, & depth jumps (box)

      • Upper body: medicine ball tosses

    • Advantages

      • Builds explosive strength

      • Builds eccentric strength and thus ________ control

    • Disadvantages

      • Increased risk of injury

      • Requires athlete to have a pre-existing strength base


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Types of Strength Training- Plyometric

  • Implementation

    • 1-3 times per week depending on ___________

    • Reps:

      • Beginner: 80-100 per session

      • Intermediate: 100-120 per session

      • Advanced: 120-140 per session

      • As intensity increases; volume should decrease


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Types of Strength Training- Calisthenics

  • _____________________- exercise technique that involves using gravity and the body’s weight as resistance

    • Types:

      • Push-ups

      • Sit-ups

      • Crunches

      • Leg lifts

      • Holds

      • Back extensions,

      • Chin-ups

      • Pull-ups

      • Calf raises

      • Lunges


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Types of Strength Training- Calisthenics

  • Advantages

    • Requires little experience

    • No spotter needed

    • Requires no equipment

  • Disadvantages

    • Does not build power

  • Implementation

    • 3 sets

    • 10 reps and ______________


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