“The Cold War impact on U.S. Immigration policy towards Latin Americans” Alba Hesselroth Yale-Georgetown 2009 Summer Institute “Latin America and the Cold War” New Haven, July 10 2009 Issues and time frames to be taken into consideration
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“The Cold War impact on U.S. Immigration policy towards Latin Americans”
Yale-Georgetown 2009 Summer Institute “Latin America and the Cold War”
New Haven, July 10 2009
Source: U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, January 1989.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, The Hispanic Population in the United States: March 1988
National IndicatorsSource: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March2004, Ethnic and Hispanic Statistics Branch, Population Division
- have a higher level of education
- higher median household income
- higher rate of home ownership.
As a group Cubans in the USA are distinct in many ways from the rest of the Hispanic population.
There are important differences among Cubans, particularly between those who arrived before 1980 and those who arrived in subsequent years.
Puzzles: - Why do cubans in the USA have a better economic position compared to other hispanic groups? - Why do significant differences exist between cubans that arrived before 1980s and those that arrived later?
Elite emigration: supporters of Batista and wealthy people (white and highly educated).
- Recognition of Cuba as a communist state
- Cubans are thus recognized as “Exiles”
- monthly relief checks
- health services
- job training
- adult educational opportunities – English classes, Professional certification
- Partial funding to Dade County Public Schools System to help to accommodate more than 3,500 Cuban refugee children in 1961
December 1960 - October 1962, more than 14,000 Cuban youths arrived alone in the US. It was the largest recorded exodus of unaccompanied minors in the Western Hemisphere
- In California, Chicanas actively participated in the UFW, while East Los Angeles Latina activists worked for social change, Puerto Ricans for defense of civil rights.
- Cuban women also organized: Hijas del Pueblo in New Orleans and the Junta Patriotica de Damas de Nueva York.
- Later: Union de Mujeres, the Cruzada Femenina Cubana, Movimiento Femenino Anticomunista de Cuba, Organizacion de Damas Anticomunistas Cubanas (Perez, 1986: 126-37)
- Contact between Cubans in the homeland and exiles and Americans in the US had a boomerang effect.
- Many Cubans’ basic beliefs about their society and about life in the US were challenged.
- Discontent increased and attempts to leave the island too.
-1979-1980: 30 Cubans smuggled themselves in Latin American embassies seeking asylum
- During May: 88,817 Cubans left Cuba, 14,000 per week. - As of Sept. 1980: 125,000 Cubans came to the USA.
- The Marielitos, came from virtually every segment of Cuban society, including the poor. Many were black.
- Individuals released from jails and mental institutions by became part of the human flow that migrated to the US.
- Marielos (mainly “Black” and poor) were discriminated by other Cubans.
- Anti-Cuban sentiment: African Americans rioted, voters repealed Bilingual-Bicultural Ordinance.
- 103 or 63.9% are Mariel refugees
- 11 or 6.8% are Cuban ex- political prisoners
- 47 or 29.1% are Cuban-Americans. (Unzueta)
Approximately 33,000 Cubans fled to the U.S.
Central Americans’ Migration to the USA
Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala,
A tale of three migrations…, and a tale of three different decades…
Hurricane Mitch in 1998,
two earthquakes in El Salvador in 2001,
Hurricane Stan in 2005.
1980s Guatemalan Indigenous
Men have outnumbered women’s migration
- the lowest high school graduation rate (34.8 %)
- one of the lowest percentage of those age 25 and older with a bachelor's degree (4.9 %).
- one of the lowest of high school graduation (37.3 %
- lowest percentage of college degree (3.0 %)