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Performance Appraisal. Chapter 8 March 10, 2014. Objectives. Explain the purposes of performance appraisals and the reasons they can sometimes fail. Identify the characteristics of an effective appraisal program. Describe the different sources of appraisal information.

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Performance appraisal l.jpg

Performance Appraisal

Chapter 8

March 10, 2014


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

  • Explain the purposes of performance appraisals and the reasons they can sometimes fail.

  • Identify the characteristics of an effective appraisal program.

  • Describe the different sources of appraisal information.

  • Explain the various methods used for performance evaluation.

  • Outline the characteristics of an effective performance appraisal interview.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Performance appraisal judges effectiveness of recruitment efforts

Recruitment

Quality of applicants determines feasible performance standards

Selection

Selection should produce workers best able to meet job requirements

Performance appraisal validates selection function

Performance appraisal determines training needs

Training and Development

Training and development aids achievement of performance standards

Performance appraisal is a factor in determining pay

Compensation Management

Compensation can affect appraisal of performance

Performance appraisal justifies personnel actions

Labor Relations

Appraisal standards and methods may be subject to negotiation

Performance Appraisal and Other HR Functions

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Presentation Slide 8–1


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Appraisal Programs efforts

Performance Appraisal

Administrative

Developmental

Compensation

Ind. Evaluation

Job Evaluation

Training

Career Planning

EEO/AA Support

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Purposes for Performance Appraisal efforts

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Reasons Appraisal Programs Fail efforts

  • Lack of top-management information and support

  • Unclear performance standards

  • Rater bias

  • Too many forms to complete

  • Use of the appraisal program for conflicting purposes.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Managerial Issues Concerning Appraisals efforts

  • Managers feel that little or no benefit will be derived from the time and energy spent in the process.

  • Managers dislike the face-to-face confrontation of appraisal interviews.

  • Managers are not sufficiently adept in providing appraisal feedback.

  • The judgmental role of appraisal conflicts with the helping role of developing employees.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Inadequate preparation on the part of the manager. efforts

Employee is not given clear objectives at the beginning of performance period.

Manager may not be able to observe performance or have all the information.

Inconsistency in ratings among supervisors or other raters.

Performance standards may not be clear.

Rating personality rather than performance.

The halo effect, contrast effect, or some other perceptual bias.

Common Appraisal Problems

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Inappropriate time span (either too short or too long). efforts

Overemphasis on uncharacteristic performance.

Inflated ratings because managers do not want to deal with “bad news.”

Subjective or vague language in written appraisals.

Organizational politics or personal relationships cloud judgments.

No thorough discussion of causes of performance problems.

Manager may not be trained at evaluation or giving feedback.

No follow-up and coaching after the evaluation.

Common Appraisal Problems (cont’d)

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Let me count the ways… efforts

Manager lacks information

Lack of appraisal skills

Insufficient reward for performance

Manager not taking appraisal seriously

Performance appraisals fail because…

Unclear language

Manager not prepared

Ineffective discussion of employee development

Employee not receiving ongoing feedback

Manager not being honest or sincere

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Why Appraisal Systems Are Ineffective efforts

  • Inadequate preparation on the part of the manager.

  • Employee is not given clear objectives at the beginning of performance period.

  • Manager may not be able to observe performance or have all the information.

  • Performance standards may not be clear.

  • Inconsistency in ratings among supervisors or other raters.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Why Appraisal Systems Are Ineffective (cont’d) efforts

  • Rating personality rather than performance.

  • The halo effect, contrast effect, or some other perceptual bias.

  • Inappropriate time span (too short or too long).

  • Overemphasis on uncharacteristic performance.

  • Inflated ratings because managers do not want to deal with “bad news.”

  • Subjective or vague language in written appraisals.

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Figure 8.2b


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Why Appraisal Systems Are Ineffective (cont’d) efforts

  • Organizational politics or personal relationships cloud judgments.

  • No thorough discussion of causes of performance problems.

  • Manager may not be trained at evaluation or giving feedback.

  • No follow-up and coaching after the evaluation.

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Figure 8.2c


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Establishing Performance Standards efforts

Criterion contamination: Elements that affect the appraisal measures that are not part of the actual performance

Performance measures

Reliability:

Measures that are consistent across raters and over time

Actualperformance

Zone of valid assessment

Strategic relevance: Performance standards linked to organizational goals and competencies

Criterion deficiency:

Aspects of actual performance that are not measured

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Performance Standards Characteristics efforts

Strategic Relevance

Individual standards directly relate to strategic goals.

Criterion Deficiency

Standards capture all of an individual’s contributions.

Criterion Contamination

Performance capability is not reduced by external factors.

Reliability

(Consistency)

Standards are quantifiable, measurable, and stable.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Compliance with the Law efforts

  • Brito v Zia

    • The Supreme Court ruled that performance appraisals were subject to the same validity criteria as selection procedures.

  • Albemarle Paper Company v Moody

    • The U.S. Supreme Court found that employees had been ranked, against a vague standard, open to each supervisor’s own interpretation.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Legal Guidelines for Appraisals efforts

  • Performance ratings must be job-related.

  • Employees must be given a written copy of their job standards in advance of appraisals.

  • Managers who conduct the appraisal must be able to observe the behavior they are rating.

  • Supervisors must be trained to use the appraisal form correctly.

  • Appraisals should be discussed openly with employees and counseling or corrective guidance offered.

  • An appeals procedure should be established to enable employees to express disagreement with the appraisal.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Sources of Performance Appraisal efforts

  • Manager and/or Supervisor

    • Appraisal done by an employee’s manager and reviewed by a manager one level higher.

  • Self-Appraisal Performance

    • By the employee being evaluated, generally on an appraisal form completed by the employee prior to the performance interview.

  • Subordinate Appraisal

    • Appraisal of a superior by an employee, which is more appropriate for developmental than for administrative purposes.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Sources of Performance Appraisal efforts

  • Peer Appraisal

    • Appraisal by fellow employees, compiled into a single profile for use in an interview conducted by the employee’s manager.

  • Team Appraisal

    • Appraisal, based on TQM concepts, recognizing team accomplishment rather than individual performance.

  • Customer Appraisal

    • Appraisal that seeks evaluation from both external and internal customers.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Pros and Cons of 360-Degree Appraisal efforts

  • PROS

    • The system is more comprehensive in that responses are gathered from multiple perspectives.

    • Quality of information is better. (Quality of respondents is more important than quantity.)

    • It complements TQM initiatives by emphasizing internal/external customers and teams.

    • It may lessen bias/prejudice since feedback comes from more people, not one individual.

    • Feedback from peers and others may increase employee self-development.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Pros and Cons of 360-Degree Appraisal efforts

  • CONS

    • The system is complex in combining all the responses.

    • Feedback can be intimidating and cause resentment if employee feels the respondents have “ganged up.”

    • There may be conflicting opinions, though they may all be accurate from the respective standpoints.

    • The system requires training to work effectively.

    • Employees may collude or “game” the system by giving invalid evaluations to one another.

    • Appraisers may not be accountable if their evaluations are anonymous.

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Figure 8.5b


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360-Degree Performance Appraisal System Integrity Safeguards efforts

  • Assure anonymity.

  • Make respondents accountable.

  • Prevent “gaming” of the system.

  • Use statistical procedures.

  • Identify and quantify biases.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Training Performance Appraisers efforts

Common rater-related errors

Error of central tendency

Leniency or strictness errors

Similar-to-me errors

Recency errors

Contrast and halo errors

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Rater Errors efforts

  • Error of Central Tendency

    • A rating error in which all employees are rated about average.

  • Leniency or Strictness Error

    • A rating error in which the appraiser tends to give all employees either unusually high or unusually low ratings.

  • Recency Error

    • A rating error in which appraisal is based largely on an employee’s most recent behavior rather than on behavior throughout the appraisal period.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Rater Errors efforts

  • Contrast Error

    • A rating error in which an employee’s evaluation is biased either upward or downward because of comparison with another employee just previously evaluated.

  • Similar-to-Me Error

    • An error in which an appraiser inflates the evaluation of an employee because of a mutual personal connection.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Graphic Rating Scale efforts

Mixed Standard Scale

Forced-Choice

Essay

Trait Methods

Trait Methods

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Trait Methods efforts

  • Graphic Rating-Scale Method

    • A trait approach to performance appraisal whereby each employee is rated according to a scale of individual characteristics.

  • Mixed-Standard Scale Method

    • An approach to performance appraisal similar to other scale methods but based on comparison with (better than, equal to, or worse than) a standard.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Graphic Rating Scale With Provision For Comments efforts

HRM 2

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Trait Methods efforts

  • Forced-Choice Method

    • Requires the rater to choose from statements designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance.

  • Essay Method

    • Requires the rater to compose a statement describing employee behavior.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Example Of A Mixed-standard Scale efforts

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Critical Incident efforts

Behavioral Checklist

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

Behavior Observation Scale (BOS)

Behavioral Methods

Behavioral Methods

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Behavioral Methods efforts

  • Critical Incident

    • An unusual event denoting superior or inferior employee performance in some part of the job.

  • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

    • A performance appraisal that consists of a series of vertical scales, one for each dimension of job performance.

  • Behavior Observation Scale (BOS)

    • A performance appraisal that measures the frequency of observed behavior.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Examples Of A Bars For Municipal Fire Companies efforts

FIREFIGHTING STRATEGY: Knowledge of Fire Characteristics.

MQM 323/Fall 2003

HRM 4



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Results Methods efforts

  • Management by Objectives (MBO)

    • A philosophy of management that rates performance on the basis of employee achievement of goals set by mutual agreement of employee and manager.

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Performance Appraisal under an MBO Program efforts

Management by Objectives

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Figure 8.6


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The Balanced Scorecard efforts

MQM 323/Fall 2003

HRM 6


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Personal Scorecard efforts

Source: Robert Kaplan and David Norton, “Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System,” Harvard Business Review (January–February 1996): 75–85.

MQM 323/Fall 2003

HRM 7


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DISADVANTAGES efforts

ADVANTAGES

Inexpensive

Potential for error

TRAITS

Meaningful

Poor for counseling

Easy to use

Poor for allocating rewards

Poor for promotional decisions

Specific dimensions

Time consuming

BEHAVIOR

Accepted by employees

Costly

Useful for feedback

Some rating error

OK for reward/promotion

Less subjectivity bias

Time consuming

Accepted by employees

Focus on short term

RESULTS

Performance-reward link

Criterion contamination

Encourages goal setting

Criterion deficiency

Good for promotiondecisions

Summary of Appraisal Methods

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Summary of Appraisal Methods efforts

  • Trait Methods

    • Advantages

      • Are inexpensive to develop

      • Use meaningful dimensions

      • Are easy to use

    • Disadvantages

      • Have high potential for rating errors

      • Are not useful for employee counseling

      • Are not useful for allocating rewards

      • Are not useful for promotion decisions

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Summary of Appraisal Methods (cont’d) efforts

  • Behavioral Methods

    • Advantages

      • Use specific performance dimensions

      • Are acceptable to employees and superiors

      • Are useful for providing feedback

      • Are fair for reward and promotion decisions

    • Disadvantages

      • Can be time-consuming to develop/use

      • Can be costly to develop

      • Have some potential for rating error

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Figure 8.7b


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Summary of Appraisal Methods (cont’d) efforts

  • Results Methods

    • Advantages

      • Have less subjectivity bias

      • Are acceptable to employees and superiors

      • Link individual to organizational performance

      • Encourage mutual goal setting

      • Are good for reward and promotion decisions

    • Disadvantages

      • Are time-consuming to develop/use

      • May encourage short-term perspective

      • May use contaminated criteria

      • May use deficient criteria

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Figure 8.7c


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Types of Appraisal Interviews efforts

Appraisal Interview Formats

Tell and Sell - persuasion

Tell and Listen - nondirective

Problem solving- focusing the interview on problem resolution and employee development

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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Appraisal Interview Guidelines efforts

Invite Participation

Ask for Self-Assessment

Change Behavior

Problem Solving Focus

Minimize Criticism

Express Appreciation

Establish Goals

Be Supportive

Follow Up Day by Day

MQM 323/Fall 2003

Presentation Slide 8–6


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Factors That Influence Performance efforts

MQM 323/Fall 2003


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