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Survey Methodology Sampling. EPID 626 Lecture 2. What is sampling?. Population: The collection of all possible measurements that could be used to address the study question. Sample: (v.) To select a small subset of a population representative of the whole population. (Fowler, 1993).

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Survey methodology sampling

Survey MethodologySampling

EPID 626

Lecture 2


What is sampling
What is sampling?

  • Population: The collection of all possible measurements that could be used to address the study question.

  • Sample: (v.) To select a small subset of a population representative of the whole population.(Fowler, 1993)




Critical sampling issues
Critical sampling issues nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • Whether or not to use a probability sample

  • The sample frame (those who actually have a chance to be sampled)

  • The size of the sample


Critical sampling issues con t
Critical sampling issues (con’t) nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • The sample design (the particular strategy used for sampling people or household)

  • The rate of response (the percentage of those sampled for whom data are actually collected)(Fowler, 1995)


Sample frame
Sample frame nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • The set of people that has a chance to be selected, given the sampling approach that is chosen.

  • Question: How well does the sample frame correspond to the population you want to describe?(Fowler, 1993)


Examples of sampling frames
Examples of sampling frames nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • List of registered drivers in Louisiana

  • List of patients who have been treated at a clinic in the past year

  • Greater New Orleans residential phone listing

  • List of all public schools in Virginia


Here is our sampling scenario
Here is our sampling scenario nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • Population: Roosevelt High School studentsN=99

  • Sampling frame: List of students, numbered 01-99

  • Desired sample size: n=33


Sampling strategies
Sampling strategies nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • One-stage sampling

    • Simple random sampling

    • Systematic sampling

    • Stratified sampling

  • Multi-stage sampling

    • Area probability sampling


Simple random sampling
Simple random sampling nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • Each member of the study population has an equal probability of being selected.

  • Analogous to drawing a number from a hat.

  • Each sample is sampled from the sampling frame one at a time, independent of one another, and without replacement.


Simple random sampling1
Simple random sampling nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • We do it by numbering the sample frame, then using a computer, a table of random numbers, or another random generator to randomly choose observations from the list.


Systematic random sample strategy
Systematic random sample strategy nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • Each member of the study population is listed, a random start is designated, then members of the population are selected at equal intervals.(Henry, 1990)


Systematic random sampling
Systematic random sampling nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • Determine your interval: i=N/n

  • Select a random start between 0 and i

  • Select every ith person

  • Cautionary note about ordered lists


Roosevelt systematic random sampling
Roosevelt systematic random sampling nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • i=99/33=3

  • (Round down if i is not an integer)

  • Select a random start from 1 to 3

  • Select every 3rd student from the random start

  • So if start is 2, select 2, 5, 8 etc.


Stratified sampling strategy
Stratified sampling strategy nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • Each member of the study population is assigned to a group or stratum, then a simple or systematic random sample is selected from each stratum.

  • This reduces normal sampling variation and ensures that the sample reflects the total population with regard to the stratifying variable.


Stratified disproportionate sampling
Stratified Disproportionate Sampling nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.

  • Can oversample a stratum with high variability to increase the precision of an estimate

  • Oversample a particular stratum to increase the n for the subpopulation without a corresponding increase in the total N.

  • Important to weight data accordingly for analysis


Disproportionate sampling
Disproportionate Sampling nearly all) population members the same (or a known) chance of being sampled, and to use probability methods for choosing the sample.


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