John Donne (1572-1631) Anglican (Church of England) priest. Holy Sonnet 10 “Death be not proud”. Published in 1633 posthumously. Time Line - Elizabethans. TUDORS (English Renaissance) Henry VII (1485-1509)
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Holy Sonnet 10 “Death be not proud”.
Published in 1633 posthumously.
TUDORS (English Renaissance)
Shakespeare, 1564-1616, Elizabethan poet and playwright;
Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe etc.
The poetry of the first half of the 17thC (through 1660) has been classified as Metaphysical (John Donne, George Herbert, Henry Vaughan, Thomas Traherne, Abraham Cowley, Richard Crashaw, and Andrew Marvell) and Cavalier (Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Thomas Carew).
The term was coined by John Dryden (1693): "He affects the metaphysics . . . and perplexes the minds of the fair sex with nice [i.e., overly subtle] speculations of philosophy, when he should engage their hearts, and entertain them with the softnesses of love."
Samuel Johnson later used the term to describe the poetic method
Characteristics of Metaphysical poetry:
Samuel Johnson: “…a combination of dissimilar images or discovery of occult resemblances in things apparently unlike. The most heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence together. Nature and art are ransacked for illustrations, comparisons and allusions…”.
House of Orange and Stuart
House of Brunswick, Hanover Line George I (1714-1727), Augustan George II (1727-1760) George III (1760-1820), Romanticism
George IV (1820-1830) William IV (1830-1837) Victoria (1837-1901), Victorian
View of poetry:
View of world:
Novelists: Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, L. Sterne, T. Smollet, Henry Fielding, .
Or Age of Johnson: 1750-1798, named after Samuel Johnson. The period began to emphasize instinct, feeling or “sensibility”, rather than judgment and restraint. A renewed interest in medieval ballads and folk literature. Age of transition between the Neoclassical period, and the Romantic period.
A rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues promoted a secular view of the world and a desire to discover and to act upon universally valid principles governing humanity, nature, and society. Authors attacked spiritual and scientific authority, dogmatism, intolerance, censorship, and economic and social restraints. They considered the state theproper and rational instrument of progress. The rationalism and skepticism of the age led naturally to deism; the same qualities played a part in bringing the later reaction of romanticism.
Ann Radcliffe and Henry Mackenzie, dramatists Richard Sheridan and Oliver Goldsmith, and poets William Collins and Thomas Gray.
Irish writer and physician. Studied medicine at Edinburgh and Leiden, but his career as a physician was quite unsuccessful. In 1756 he settled in London, where he achieved some success as a miscellaneous contributor to periodicals.
It was not until The Citizen of the World (1762), a series of whimsical and satirical essays, that he was recognized as an able man of letters. His fame grew with The Traveler (1764), a philosophic poem, and the nostalgic pastoral The Deserted Village (1770).
His literary reputation rests on his two comedies, The Good-natur’d Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1773), and his only novel, The Vicar of Wakefield (1766).
He had the friendship of many of the literary and artistic great of his day, the most notable being that of Samuel Johnson.
In Greek and Roman poetry, a poem written in elegiac verse: couplets consisting of a hexameter line followed by a pentameter line. The form dates back to 7th cent. B.C. in Greece and poets such as Archilochus, Mimnermus, and Tytraeus and in Roman poetry, it was widely used by Catullus, Ovid, and other Latin poets.
In English poetry, since the 16th cent., the term elegy designates a reflective poem of lamentation or regret, with no set metrical form, generally of melancholy tone, often on death. The elegy can mourn one person, such as Walt Whitman’s “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d” on the death of Abraham Lincoln, or humanity in general, as in Thomas Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.” In the pastoral elegy the subject and friends are depicted as nymphs and shepherds inhabiting a pastoral world in classical times (Milton’s “Lycidas,” on Edward King, Shelley’s “Adonais,” on John Keats).
Romantics and Romanticism (roman, romances)
Music: Mozart, Beethoven, Haydn, Tchaikovsky .
Art: Turner and Constable.
Literature: Poe, Emerson, Thoreau, Longfellow, Pushkin, Hugo, Rousseau, Flaubert etc.
Poets: Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey (early romantics), Shelley, Keats, Blake, Byron, Burns (later romantics.
Essay: Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt, Thomas de Quincey.
Novel: Sir Walter Scott.
Middle French, from Late Latin, from Greek OidE, literally, song, from aeidein, aidein to sing; akin to Greek audE voice
A lyric poem usually marked by exaltation of feeling and style, varying length of line, and complexity of stanza forms.
Hail to thee, blithe Spirit!
Bird thou never wert –
That from Heaven or near it
Pourest thy full heart
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art.
1795-1821, died of consumption when 25 years old. In 1816 gave up surgery to pursue poetry
In a letter of October 27, 1818:
Keats's imagery ranges among all our physical sensations: sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell, temperature, weight, pressure, hunger, thirst, sexuality, and movement.
Keats repeatedly combines different senses in one image, that is, he attributes the trait(s) of one sense to another, a practice called synaesthesia(Greek for ‘joined feelings’). His synaesthetic imagery performs two major functions in his poems: it is part of their sensual effect, and the combining of senses normally experienced as separate suggests an underlying unity of dissimilar happenings, the oneness of all forms of life.
poet laureate (1850), spokesman for the ideas and values of his time