Hydrodynamics of Local Tsunami Effects - Numerical and Scale Model Results
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Hydrodynamics of Local Tsunami Effects - Numerical and Scale Model Results Based on Laboratory Experiments at the University of Washington and Numerical Simulation at Southern Methodist University (National Science Foundation Grant CMS-9614120) 1957 Aleutian Tsunami Laie Point,

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Hydrodynamics of Local Tsunami Effects - Numerical and Scale Model Results

Based on Laboratory Experiments at the University of Washington and Numerical Simulation at Southern Methodist University

(National Science Foundation Grant CMS-9614120)


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1957 Aleutian Model Results

Tsunami

Laie Point,

Oahu, Hawaii

Photo Credit:

Henry Helbush.

Source: NGDC


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Photos of incoming tsunami at La Manzanillo, Mexico on October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Courtesy of J. Borrerro, USC


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Ishikawa River on Hokkaido Island October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Pedestrians on seawall

1983 Sea of Japan Tsunami, (Video footage courtesy of NHK)


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Hilo Harbor October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Puumaile Tuberculosis Hospital

1946 Aleutian tsunami in Hilo, Hawaii. 96 people died, $26 million damage.

(Photos courtesy of NGDC)

Kamehameha Ave., Hilo


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Isla Chiloe, Chile October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

about 200 mortalities

Hilo, Hawaii

61 mortalities

1960, Chilean tsunami (Mw = 8.6)

(photos courtesy of NGDC)


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Pancer, East Java. The tsunami of June 3, 1994 October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

took the lives of 126 people and destroyed 671 structures.


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Tsunami protection structures on the East Coast of Japan. October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

(Photos courtesy of

A. Moore)


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Views of Laboratory Instruments October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Pneumatic Gate

Cylindrical Obstacle

Force Cell in Cylinder


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Obstacle October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Gate

Water

Walls

Side

View

30

40

50

12

58

24

Top

View

12

25

Schematic of Experiment (all dimensions in cm)


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15 October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

16

18

17

Laser Light Sheet Images of Water Surface: Frames 15-18


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20 October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

19

21

22

Laser Light Sheet Images of Water Surface: Frames 19-22


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Surface Profile Acquisition: October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Raw Data from Frame 19


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Surface Profile Acquisition: October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Processed Data from Frame 19


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Water Surface Profile: Time-History October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)



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Comparison: Force Data from 4 Repetitions of Same Experiment October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Run 4




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Comparison: Lab Force Data with October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)Three-Dimensional Surface Marker and Micro Cell (3DSMMC) Technique

Force (N)

Time (s)


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Comparison: Lab Velocity Data with October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)Three-Dimensional Surface Marker and Micro Cell (3DSMMC) Technique

1

Horizontal Velocity (m/s)

0

Time (s)


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October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

Linear Momentum: F = mvx = (Avx)vx

Drag Force: F = 1/2CDAvx2, CD = 2


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Some Conclusions: October 9, 1995 (Mw = 8.0)

1. Laboratory and numerical results confirm that the maximum force occurs when the area behind the bore head begins to impact the obstacle.

2. The 3DSMMC horizontal forces on the square obstacle and of the velocity field model gives an accurate prediction of the around the obstacle during the progression of the bore.

3. For the square obstacle facing into the flow, using the measured maximum velocity in the bore and either conservation of linear momentum or a drag force calculation yields a good first order estimate of the maximum force.


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Hydrodynamics of Local Tsunami Effects - Numerical and Scale Model Results

H. Yeh, C. Petroff and H. Arnason

Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Washington, USA

R. Bidoae and P. Raad

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Southern Methodist University, USA


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