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(Inter)Connectivity Issues in Nigeria: Some Perspectives PowerPoint PPT Presentation

(Inter)Connectivity Issues in Nigeria: Some Perspectives Mobolaji E. Aluko, PhD Professor of Chemical Engineering Howard University, Washington DC; President/CEO Alondex Applied Technologies, LLC; Vice-President, NITPA (Nigerian Information Technology Professionals in the Americas)

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(Inter)Connectivity Issues in Nigeria: Some Perspectives

Mobolaji E. Aluko, PhD

Professor of Chemical Engineering

Howard University, Washington DC;

President/CEO Alondex Applied Technologies, LLC;

Vice-President, NITPA

(Nigerian Information Technology Professionals in the Americas)


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A talk delivered at the 3rd Annual International Nigerian Telecommunications Summit [‘Realising Opportunities in Nigerian Telecommunications”]September 20-21, 2004London, England


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Outline of Talk1. NCC & Interconnection2. The Need for Interconnectivity3. The Physical Structure4. The Logical Structure5. Nigerian Policy – Guided or Fully liberalized?6. Some International Examples 7. SAT-3 Issues (International, Local)8. Some suggestions9. A few closing thoughts10. Acknowledgements

Bolaji Aluko;Nigeria Telcom Summit, London September 2004


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Working Definition of InterconnectionNCC Act 1992 [Guidelines on Interconnection of Telecommunications Networks]:“5.(1) Interconnection means the physical and logical linking of telecommunications networks used by the same or a different operator in order to allow the users of one telecommunications network to communicate with the users of the same or another telecommunications network or to access services provided by a telecommunications network. The services may be provided by the parties involved or other parties who have access to the network. “


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The Need for Interconnectivity

Operator A

Operator B

Audio/Voice

1

3

Data

Video

Images

Services

Services

Fax

4

2

Internet

Subscriber

Subscriber

Services: Mainly Voice, little Internet-penetration, need more others (ATM, X.25, GPRS, etc.)

Subscribers:1999 - 0.5 million 2003 - ~ 2.4 mil. 2004- ~4.6 mil. 2010 - 10, 20, 40 mil. ?

Internet Users: 2000 - ~100k Sept. 2004 - ~750k [IP Count: 181k (Feb. 2004)]

[2004: MTN:2 mil, VeeNet:1 mil, Globacom:750k; MTEL:300k;NITEL:450k; Others:60k?]

Operators:1999: 1 NO, 1 MO, xPTOs, yISPs, etc. 2004: 2 NOs, 4 MOs, etc. 2010 - ?


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BINARY SERVICE, MEDIA, PROTOCOL, MOBILITY DIVISIONS

V O I C E

NON - VOICE

WIRELESS

IP NETWORKS

WIRED

NON-IP NETWORKS

FIXED

MOBILE

Converged Services


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Each of the services:* different rates of transmission* different formats* different protocols* different priorities for delivery

Convergence Issues

XOIP – Services over Internet !

Physical Media; Logical Structure important

for efficient connectivity


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Physical media: Wired: Wireless: * twisted pair * IR, radio, microwave(terrestrial)* coaxial cable * VSAT* fiber(Very Small Aperture Terminal)- microwave, extraterrestrial (Satellite)


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Physical media:

Twisted pair (copper) – low transmission rate, short distance

Coaxial cable (copper) – faster transmission rate, longer distance

Fiber (glass) – low loss, very high transmission rate, great distance


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For radio or microwave terrestrial – skip the satellite

Moderate (radio) to high-transmission rates (satellite)

[narrow-band < ~ 200 kbps --- broad-band]

Moderate (radio) to very large distance (satellite)


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True ISPs ~ 40 - 80

StarTech, Rainbownet, OduaTel, etc.


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NITEL’s Telecommunication Infrastructure

International

3 Digital, 1 Analog Intelsat Satellite Earth Station

National

7 Digital Secondary Switching Centers

Regional

52 Primary Centers (16 Digital)

Local

286 Local Exchanges (135 Digital)

Source: BPE’s website on NITEL (www.bpeng.org)


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Some Telecommunications Indicators in Nigeria

Source: VSAT case studies: Nigeria & Algeria [Esselaar & Stravou, 2003]


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Questions for NigeriaWhat is our proposed and/or preferred transmission backbone- fiber and/or wireless?How should it evolve – completely private-driven or government-guided?Needed – a National Fiber Transmission Backbone


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SIGNAL MULTIPLEXING & MODULATION

FDM, TDM, (D)WDM can all be complementary

[Eg GSM is combination of FDM and TDMA]


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WhatLogical Structure ?* hubs* routers (for destination mapping)* bridges (to link networks)* switches (multiport bridges)* gateways* exchanges (eg IXP)Needed: A National Digital Interconnectivity Matrix coordinatedBetween Operators


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NCC’s Five-Year Strategic Management Plan

(2003-2007)

“Target 1G1: To provide the regulatory

stimulus and, where appropriate, the incentives

to encourage the rollout of fibre optic links

nationwide. Minimum coverage targets will be

30% by end Q4 2004, 40% by end Q4 2006 and

50% by end Q4 2007 (by state and nationally,

as appropriate)”

Are we on track?


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NEPAD ICT Infrastructure objectives:

Key Objectives:

  • To have in place, low-cost thin route satellite capacity and associated ground infrastructure to support the e-schools, e-health and other high priority NEPAD projects.

  • To ensure that all African countries are connected to a broadband fibre-optic cable system that in, turn, links Africa with the rest of the world.


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Facilities Sharing, Collocation, Cooperation“19. (1) The Commission shall encourage collocation and facility sharing and develop guidelines for shared infrastructure use and collocation.”“21. (2) The Commission shall encourage the interconnecting operators to establish technical committees and to develop specifications, protocols, and procedures for the interconnection of their telecommunications networks” - NCC


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NITEL

GLOBA-COM

FWA

MTEL

V-Net

MTN

Fully-Paired/Peered Connectivity Diagram for Operators

Ref: “Resolving the Interconnectivity Battle in Nigeria:

Some Suggestions” [Mobolaji Aluko, November 2002]


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NITEL

GLOBA-COM

Switchor

Router

FWA

MTEL

V-Net

MTN

Suggested Multiprotocol Switch/Clearing House

Ref: “Resolving the Interconnectivity Battle in Nigeria:

Some Suggestions” [Mobolaji Aluko, November 2002]


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Sample Integrated Mobile Communication

Connectivity

(Intra- or Inter-Operator)

An intelligent logical combination of wired and wireless resources


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ISP1

ISP2

IXP

ISP4

ISP3

ISP5

ISP6

INTERNET EXCHANGE (IXP) ARRANGEMENT


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Ibadan Internet Exchange IbIX: VSAT-based; http://www.ib-ix.net/index.htm

Lagos Internet Exchange – STM-1/SAT3 WIP-based in the works; NITEL-enabled


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African Exchange Points (IXPs)

Cairo and Johannesburg: fiber-landing based

All Eight Others: satellite-based

~$400 million lost annually in Africa due to out-of-continent satellite traffice


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Typical Network-to-Network Interface (NNI)

(Reference: Cable & Wireless)


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Some IP-VPN Access Options [Cable & Wireless]

Desirable to have some similar diagrams from Nigerian operators


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FIBER-OPTICS INFRASTRUCTURE

NITEL Fiber

[? STM-4 (622Mbps) cables]

GLOBACOM Fiber

[32 STM-64 (~10Gbps) cables]

SAT3

NITEL Fiber Rings (capacities?)


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SAT3/WASC/SAFE PROJECT

LANDING POINTS1. Portugal(Sesimbra)2. Spain (Chipiona)3. Spain (Altavista)4. Senegal (Dakar)5. Côte d’Ivoire (Abidjan)6. Ghana (Accra)7. Benin (Cotonou)8. Nigeria (Lagos)9. Cameroon (Douala)10. Gabon (Libraville)11. Angola (Cacuaco)12. South Africa (Melkbosstrand)13. South Africa (Mtunzini)14. La Reunion (St. Paul)15. Mauritius, (Baie Jacotet)16. India (Cochin)17. Malaysia(Penang)

1

2

3

4

7

6

9

16

5

8

10

17

11

15

13

14

2

12

For SAT3/WASC [15,000 km]:

SDH transmission; two pairs optical fiber; WDM

Initial capacity 20 Gbit/s (4x2.5 Gbits/s per fiber pair)

Upgradeable to 40 Gbit/s to 120 Gbit/s (4x2.5 + 5x10

Gbits/s per fiber pair)

Nigeria’s allocation – 13 STM-1’s (each 155.52 Mbits/s;2 “lit”)

For SAFE [13,800 km] – 10 Gbits/s (2x2.5 Gbits/per pair)

to 130 Gbits/s(2x2.5 + 6x10 Gbits/s per fiber pair)


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GLOBAL NETWORK MAP

Links to:

SAT3  SAFE (to Asia via Indian Ocean)  SMW3

 TAT-14 (to USA via Atlantic Ocean)

 SMW3 (to Asia via the Mediterranean)  APCN-2 Japan-US

{each 4 fiber pairs; DWDM; 160 Gbis/s}


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Connectivityvia Portugal

North America

Sesimbra

Central America

SAT 3 / WASC / SAFE

Middle

East

South America

Africa


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SAT 3 / WASC / SAFE

Dakar

Connectivityvia Sénégal

Western Europe

Middle East

South America

Central Southern Africa

and Asia


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Cochin

SAT 3 / WASC / SAFE

Connectivity via India

Western Europe

Asia

Pacific

Africa


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Connectivityvia Malaysia

Asia Pacific

FLAG

SEA-ME-WE 3

Middle East

Penang

APCN 2

Africa

SAT 3 / WASC /SAFE

APCN

Australia


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Cable restoration

SEA-ME-WE 3

Cochin, India

PORTUGAL

&

SPAIN

FLAG

Penang, Malaysia

SAT-2

ATLANTIS 2

SAFE

Durban, S.Africa

Dakar, Senegal

SAT- 3/WASC

Cape Town, South Africa


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See: http://www.cw.com/uk/our_network/network_maps/index.html

Also: http://www.level3.com/userimages/dotcom/images/maps/darkfiber_map.gif

Sesimbra

SAT3/WASC

Chipiona


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SAT-3 USAGE IN NIGERIA SO FAR

  • Telcoms 2. Oil & Gas Companies:

  • NITEL Shell

  • Globacom Chevron

  • MTNNLNG, etc.

  • GS Telecom

  • PTOs, etc.

  • ISPs 4. ASPs

  • Tara SITA

  • Accelon Tara, etc.

  • GS Telecom

  • Elinex

  • Nova, etc.

  • [to be/connected to Nitel’s Wholesale IP (WIP);

  • gearing up for Lagos Internet Exchange Point (LGIX)]


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Some concluding thoughts:*Telecommunications are critical to economic development*There is need for greater transparency and information flow for investor planning/wealth creation* Fiber backbone critical !* Need for Integrated National Plan for Telcomservices (with some time tables)* Next important issue: value-added services(e-commerce, e-learning, security, etc. by SMEs)


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Final Acknowledgements* To CWC* To NCC/Ministry of Communications* To the listening audience

Bolaji Aluko;Nigeria Telcom Summit, London September 2004


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I will be happy to take questions!End

Bolaji Aluko;Nigeria Telcom Summit, London September 2004


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