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THREE VOICES OF EGYPTIAN ISLAM

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THREE VOICES OF EGYPTIAN ISLAM Shaykh `Abd al-Halim Mahmud, author of Fatawa `an al-shuyu`iyya (Fatwas on Communism), written in early 1970s Khalid Muhyi al-Din, author of al-Din wa al-ishtirakiyya (Religion and Socialism), written roughly at the same time

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three voices of egyptian islam
THREE VOICES OF EGYPTIAN ISLAM
  • Shaykh `Abd al-Halim Mahmud, author of Fatawa `an al-shuyu`iyya (Fatwas on Communism), written in early 1970s
  • Khalid Muhyi al-Din, author of al-Din wa al-ishtirakiyya (Religion and Socialism), written roughly at the same time
  • Sayyid Qutb, author of Ma`alim fi al-tariq (Signposts on the Road), released from prison in 1964
fatwas on communism
FATWAS ON COMMUNISM
  • Compilation of legal opinions
  • Shallow in quality, but part of “hegemonic discourse” of the Ulema
  • Fatwas regarded as binding religious opinions, behind them is the authority of dominant tradition and the state
  • Religious interpretation in the service of political power. Al-Azhar=Islam
1 religion and socialism
1-RELIGION AND SOCIALISM
  • A collection of essays: Muhyi al-Din is a Marxist and a Muslim
  • Islam is socialist and collectivist; the earth common heritage of all; early Muslims social rebels
  • Islam a revolutionary enterprise: preaches a doctrine of social justice and gives people right to challenge inequality and injustice
2 religion and socialism
2 -RELIGION AND SOCIALISM
  • Islam is not a political but a religious order
  • Invoking divine sanction or claiming infallibility for political power is alien to Islam
  • The state to stand on its own without the cover of religion, authority is civil
  • Ali: “The Qur`an is but words between two covers. It does not speak; men do.”
the muslim brothers al ikhwan al muslimin
THE MUSLIM BROTHERS (al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin)
  • Founder: Hasan al-Banna (d. 1949) in 1928
  • Social, cultural and political factors that led to the Society’s founding:
    • (1) post-war (1919) orientations to apostasy and nihilism;
    • (2) attacks on tradition and orthodoxy; and
    • (3) secularist and libertarian trends
islamic character of the society
ISLAMIC CHARACTER OF THE SOCIETY
  • At first moral and didactic youth club
  • Moved towards militancy and political action as it struggled against British imperialism
  • The impact of Palestinian Crisis and Arab-Israeli hostilities
  • Political radicalism thrives on the threat of an external enemy
islam as a total ideology
ISLAM AS A TOTAL IDEOLOGY
  • ISLAM = comprehensive system, self evolving (mutakamil bi-dhatihi)
  • ISLAM emanates from two fundamental sources: The Qur’an and Sunna (Tradition)
  • ISLAM applicable at all times and places
  • The movement follows Salafiyya program: a Sunni way, a Sufi truth, a political organization, an athletic group, a social idea, a cultural link, an economic enterprise
the program of the society
THE PROGRAM OF THE SOCIETY
  • TWO ITEMS:
    • “internationalization” of the movement, liberation of “the Islamic homeland”
    • “to institute in this homeland a free Islamic government, practicing the principles of Islam
sayyid qutb s signposts on the road
SAYYID QUTB’S “SIGNPOSTS ON THE ROAD”
  • Most sustained and inspiring book of the Muslim Brotherhood
  • Divides social system into two: al-nizam al-jahili (a decadent or ignorant order) and al-nizam al-islami (Islamic rule)
  • “Ignorant Order” betrays the essence of Islam
  • Worth taking the risk to change it to Islamic Rule
a community of believers in a jahili society
“A COMMUNITY OF BELIEVERS IN A JAHILI SOCIETY”
  • Has an obligation to obliterate a nizam jahili
  • To die while trying to change this Ignorant system is not sedition and terrorism but martyrdom
  • In Sayyid Qutb’s trial: Encounter between the Islam of the state and the Islam of revolution
  • Rebellion = a sense of violation and injury, a vision of struggle
jama at i islami of pakistan
JAMA`AT-I-ISLAMI OF PAKISTAN
  • ISLAM = justification for the creation of the state
  • SHOWS a greater political maturity, influenced constitutional development
  • PARTICIPATED with the state in the structure of Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Like Palestinian Crisis, Indian nationalism instrumental in nourishing fundamentalism
abul a la maududi founder of ji d 1979
ABUL A`LA MAUDUDI, founder of JI (d.1979)
  • Not an `alim by training, but in close association with Ulema
  • Self-taught, semi-Westernized
  • Believed in ijtihad within the norms of Shari`a and taqlid of old schools of law
  • Opposed to women’s right to occupy high political offices
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