Han synthesis of early traditions
1 / 16

Han Synthesis of Early Traditions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Han Synthesis of Early Traditions An eclectic Confucianism Holistic view of the human and natural orders Most expressive in Dong Zhongshu ’ s (Tung Chung-shu ’ s) philosophy (Dong, ca.179-104BCE) Correlative thinking Integration of Daoist/Taoist cosmology

Related searches for Han Synthesis of Early Traditions

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Han Synthesis of Early Traditions' - Ava

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Han synthesis of early traditions l.jpg
Han Synthesis of Early Traditions

  • An eclectic Confucianism

    • Holistic view of the human and natural orders

      • Most expressive in Dong Zhongshu’s (Tung Chung-shu’s) philosophy (Dong, ca.179-104BCE)

Slide2 l.jpg

  • Correlative thinking

    • Integration of Daoist/Taoist cosmology

    • Human body is a microcosm of the universe (heaven and earth), human world correlates cosmic world

Slide3 l.jpg

  • Humans and heaven share vital energy (qi/ch’i) of cosmos

    • Rulers emulate heaven and follow heaven’s norms

    • Theory of “Stimulus and Response”(ganying/kan-ying)

      • Activities in human realm “stimulate” phenomena in other parts of cosmos; heaven “responds” to the stimulus

      • Rulers failing to follow heaven’s norms disrupt natural process

Correlative thinking l.jpg
Correlative Thinking











Hottest time of summer






























The awe inspiring heaven l.jpg
The Awe-inspiring Heaven

  • Dong Zhongshu (Tung Chung-shu) sanctified and personified heaven

    • “Heaven holds a high position and so is honored.”

    • “It sends down its manifestations and so is humane.”

    • “It conceals its form and so is numinous.”

    • “It sends down frost and dew and so brings life and death”

    • “Heaven clings to the Way and acts as the master of all living things

    • Heaven has its intent; it warns humans, the ruler in particular, before it brings about changes

New concept of confucian heaven l.jpg
New Concept of Confucian Heaven

  • Heaven gives birth to all creatures

  • Heaven has power to cause proliferation

  • Heaven possess vital energy (qi)

  • Human beings receive their destiny from Heaven

  • Heaven finds its microcosmic manifestation in human body

  • Heaven is Nature

Heaven s warnings l.jpg
Heaven’s Warnings

  • Heaven responds to human activities:

    • sends forth fearful anomalies and portents in response to “deviant energy” generated by a ruler’s unwholesome acts

    • portents: natural disasters such as earthquake, flood, drought, locusts,…

  • Natural disasters are to warn and inform the ruler of his faults and wrongdoings

    • Misfortunes and calamities befall him if he fails to recognize the cause of the portents or disasters

Slide8 l.jpg

Confucianism the ruling philosophy l.jpg
Confucianism: the Ruling Philosophy

  • Confucianism under Emperor Wu of the Han

    • Gov’t provided official support, making it into state cult

    • Gov’t established state university, selected students, and trained them to become Confucian scholars

    • Created Confucian bureaucracy and used capable scholars

    • Promoted Confucian code of conduct, humaneness and rightness (righteousness)

    • Elevated Confucian teaching of “filial piety” (xiao/hsiao)

Codification of confucian classics l.jpg
Codification of Confucian Classics

  • The five classics and Confucian Analects

  • New classic: the Classic of Filial Piety

    • “Filial piety” was highly exalted

    • “Filial piety” was promoted as political virtue

      • Confucius, “Filial Piety is the root of virtue and the source of civilization”

Slide11 l.jpg

  • Two chapters selected from the Classic of Rites

    • The Great Learning

      • Teaches eight steps a ruler takes to bring order to the world

    • The Mean

      • Noble person, sincerity, and humaneness

    • The Biographies of Women and the Admonitions for Women (Lessons for Women)

Lessons for women l.jpg
Lessons for Women

  • Ban Zhao’s (Pan Chao’s) Admonitions for Women: urged girls to master the seven “women’s vitures”

    • Humility, resignation, subservience, self-abasement, obedience, cleanliness, and industry

Slide13 l.jpg

  • Humility: “let a woman modestly yield to others; let her respect others; let her put others first, herself last.”

    • Relationship between husband and wife:

      • “If a husband does not control his wife, then the rules of conduct manifesting his authority are abandoned and broken. If a wife does not serve her husband, then the proper relationship between men and women and the natural order of things are neglected and destroyed.”

Slide14 l.jpg

  • Respect and Caution:

    • “As yin and yang are not of the same nature, so man and woman have different characteristics.” Each has his/her own place

    • Man=yang=rigidity=strength

    • Woman=yin=yielding=gentleness

    • Respect and caution expressed in the use of proper words and actions

      • Proper words and actions→ harmony and intimacy→conjugal love

      • Sharp words and improper actions→destruction of marriage→separation

Ban zhao s pan chao s views of womanly qualifications l.jpg
Ban Zhao’s (Pan Chao’s) Views of Womanly Qualifications

  • A woman ought to have four qualifications:

    • Womanly virtue (fu de): humility, subservience, resignation…

    • Womanly words (fu yan): reticence, caution

    • Womanly bearing (fu rong): self-abasement, obedience, cleanliness,

    • Womanly work (fu gong): industry

  • show whole-hearted devotion (to husband)

    • A husband can take a second wife, but a wife cannot marry twice

  • Be obedient to parents-in-law

  • Be in harmony with sisters- and brothers-in-law

Wang fu discourse of recluse l.jpg
Wang Fu: Discourse of Recluse

  • Acknowledges the value of spirit mediums

  • Acknowledges the power of heaven

  • Humans can modify their fate by cultivating inner virtue and perform righteous deed

    • Prayer to spirits or heaven can only become effective when a man follow the way of heaven and man: commit no wrongdoings and perform good deed.

  • A noble person’s moral character is superior only when his actions match his noble words/speeches