Game playing computers artificial intelligence
Download
1 / 15

GAME PLAYING COMPUTERS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 555 Views
  • Updated On :

GAME PLAYING COMPUTERS & ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Go Bang – The Game Presented to: Pascal Hitzler & Sebastian Bader Presented by: Zulqernain Akhter GOBANG(Go-moku) Introduction ( History ) Go Bang(Go-moku) Renju Description of the Games Classification of Game Type Rules of Game

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'GAME PLAYING COMPUTERS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE' - Ava


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Game playing computers artificial intelligence l.jpg
GAME PLAYING COMPUTERS & ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Go Bang – The Game

Presented to:

Pascal Hitzler

&

Sebastian Bader

Presented by: Zulqernain Akhter


Gobang go moku l.jpg
GOBANG(Go-moku)

  • Introduction ( History )

    • Go Bang(Go-moku)

    • Renju

  • Description of the Games

    • Classification of Game Type

    • Rules of Game

    • How to Play

    • Variant (Other Row-Games)

    • Computer as an opponent


Gobang go moku3 l.jpg
GOBANG(Go-moku)

  • Background Requirements

    • Searching Strategies

      • Alpha-Beta Search

      • Proof Number Search

  • Solving the Games

    • AI Games Solved Now and in Future

  • Conclusion

    • Summary of Results

    • Future Research

    • New Predictions

    • Two New Games (LOA, Amazons)


  • Introduction l.jpg
    INTRODUCTION

    History:

    • It is very old five-in-a-row game kakugo ( year 100 A.D. )

    • In Japan they played on a 19x19 Go-board since about 700 A.D.

      when Go was introduced in Japan from China.

    • The ancient Chinese game of wutzu as prototype of the Five-In-A-Row games.

    • Winner is known as Japanese “Meijin” named in game “Renju”, means “five pearls in a row“.

    • In 1931 Nobel prize winner Yasunari Kawabata "The Master of Go“, proposed the change from Go-board from 19x19 to 15x15

      intersections.

    • COMPUTER OLYMPAID GAMES in the year 2000 predicted Go-Moku as a Solved Game.


    Rules of game l.jpg

    CLASSIFICATION OF GAME TYPE

    RULES OF GAME

    · Category-3 Game:-

    "If solvable at all, then by Knowledge-based methods".

    Go-Moku and Renju are considered as divergent games. i.e. If the size of the state-space increases, the game is said to be divergent.

    ·  

    Rule 1. Play Alternates.

    Rule 2. Winning Criteria:

    Unbroken line of five stones (marks) whether

    vertically, horizontally, or diagonally.

    Rule 3. If neither player succeeds, the game is “Draw”.


    How to play l.jpg
    HOW TO PLAY

    • Players may decide how many cells of the

      lattice may be used for the game.

      For example:-

      A 10x10 lattice (100 cells)

      or

      The entire 15x15 lattice (225 cells).

    • Each player in turn moves one stone one

      space to the next empty cell either horizontally,

      vertically, or

      diagonally.


    Variant other row games row or mill games morris linea tabula m hle ttt l.jpg
    VARIANT (OTHER ROW GAMES)Row or Mill Games - Morris - Linea - Tabula – Mühle-TTT

    • Free-style Go-moku:

      An overline (six consecutive moves) win.

    • Standard Go-moku:

      Only five stones as win.

    • Tic-Tac-Toe(333-game):

      Three consecutive markers on a restricted 3x3 board.

    • Othello 8x8 as variant of Gobang(Go-moku).


    Computer as an opponent l.jpg
    COMPUTER AS AN OPPONENT

    There are 20 situations that computer will win next step

    HORIZONTALLY

    VERTICALLY

    LEFT DIAGONALLY

    RIGHT DIAGONALLY


    Searching strategy l.jpg
    SEARCHING STRATEGY

    ALPHA-BETA SEARCH

    • This algorithm is based on Depth-First Search.

    • The idea is that two scores are passed around in the search.

    • val = AlphaBeta(5, -INFINITY, INFINITY);

    • This does a five-ply search as (int depth, int alpha, int beta).


    Proof number search l.jpg

    SEARCHING STRATEGY

    PROOF NUMBER SEARCH

    DECISION

    • Best-First search method

    • Cost function used for decision (which node to expand next) to prove the goal.

      If empty point can make x 5 in a line, computer moves and wins. Game over.

      Else if there was a empty point which can make o 5 in a line, then computer

      moves the step to the point.

      Else Calculate all the values of empty points:

  • Plus100 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 4 in a line.

  • Plus 90 to value of the empty point which can make computer 4 in a line.

  • Plus 80 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 3 in a line.

  • Plus 70 to value of the empty point which can make computer 3 in a line.

  • Plus 60 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 2 in a line.

  • Plus 50 to value of the empty point which can make computer 2 in a line.


  • Slide11 l.jpg

    AI GAMES SOLVED NOW AND IN FUTURE

    Three different definitions of a solution

    Ultra-weakly solved: the game theoretic value of the initial position has been determined.

    Weakly solved: for the initial position, a strategy has been determined to achieve the game-theoretic values against any opposition.

    Strongly solved: such a strategy has been determined for all legal moves.


    Slide12 l.jpg

    SUMMARY OF RESULTS

    • The Category-3 games are solved by a combination of expert knowledge, threat-space search, threat-sequence search, proof-number search,as well as alpha-beta search.

    • For both free-style and standard Go-moku, Allis [Ref. VU, NL] established that the game theoretic value is a first-player win.

    • Go-moku & Renju have same State-space and Game-tree complexities.

    Calculation performed in parallel on Systems at Vrije University in Amsterdam.

    The correctness of DB-Search implementation applied and inferred this game as “solved one”.


    Slide13 l.jpg

    FUTURE RESEARCH

    Future Research can be splitted into three areas

    • Leftovers of current investigations.

    • Selection of fragment, player wants to play in.

    • Question remains: Is a long-term strategy computable by a machine?

    • Weakly solve the remaining variants of Connect Five – different board-sizes, different rules – including:

      • free-style and standard Go-moku on smaller boards.

      • Go-moku with new Opening Rules, including swapping.

      • Renju with opening rules.

    • 4th Computer Renju Tournament (2004) and Solving Problems Competitions.

    • Discover minimax-win solutions from opening positions.

    • Strongly-solve weakly-solved games.


    Slide14 l.jpg

    NEW PREDICTIONS

    Computer Olympaid Games in the year 2010 predicted:

    • Awari, Othello, and Checker(8x8) as Solved Games.

    • In Scrabble, computers are believed to be closed to perfect play.

    • Lines of Action (LOA)

    • Amazons

      The Prospects of both are rather different.

  • LOA has complexity similar to Othello.

  • LOA is a game, for which interest only arose recently.

  • At the fifth Computer Olympaid three strong LOA programs participated.

  • Expectation for LOA game not to be solved before 2010.

  • Assumption of weak solution is possible, but

  • Best Solution is expected in the year 2010.

  • TWO NEW GAMES


    Slide15 l.jpg

    TWO NEW GAMES

    • Amazons is a game with a Complexity comparable to that of Go.

    • For Competitive programs, simple evaluation functions work quite reasonable.

    • Due to variety of possible moves and branching factor, Amazons will only be solved on relatively small boards,

    • Since a game starts with 8 Amazons and every move exactly fills one empty square, the initial position on m x m boards with odd m favours the First Player.

    • The Second Player has an advantage IF m is even.

      Conclusion:

      Many additional games with Mathematical properties recently have come to the attention of Computer Scientists.


    ad