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Flowers and Fruit. Flower Structure. Generalized flowers - 2 outer sets of sterile parts, 2 inner sets of fertile parts Outer sterile part - sepals, collectively the calyx - may do photosynthesis, protect flower, usually like leaves in texture, protect bud - form outer covering of bud

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flower structure
Flower Structure
  • Generalized flowers - 2 outer sets of sterile parts, 2 inner sets of fertile parts
  • Outer sterile part - sepals, collectively the calyx - may do photosynthesis, protect flower, usually like leaves in texture, protect bud - form outer covering of bud
  • Next sterile part - petals - not like leaves in texture, usually not green, collectively called corolla - petalloid - petal like in appearance
  • Both sepals and petals can be fused - so sepals joined together, petals joined together
  • Perianth - calyx and corolla together - used when the two cannot be distinguished - sometimes sepals and petals are called tepals for perianth if very similar in appearance – like in Tulips
  • If only one set of sterile parts, they are always called sepals; sometimes whole perianth is missing
  • First fertile parts - stamens - male – androecium - Can be sterile and modified to look like petals
  • Innermost fertile parts - pistils, female - gynoecium
carpels and ovaries
Carpels and Ovaries
  • Flowering plants always have enclosed ovary wrapped in a carpel - nonflowering plants don\'t - this is the vessel of the angiosperm
  • Carpel is highly modified leaf - a simple pistil is one ovary
  • Pistil may be made up of one carpel or several fused carpels
  • Often the bottom part called the ovary, with stigma at top to receive pollen, style connects them - fused carpels may have separate style and stigma or they may all be fused
plant sexuality
Plant Sexuality
  • Monoecious - separate flowers for male and female both on one plant - corn
  • Dioecious - male and female plants are separate - separate sexes - gingko
  • Perfect flower - flower has stamens and carpels – bisexual flowers
  • Imperfect flower - lacks either stamens or carpels - will be staminate or carpellate (pistillate)
  • Complete - has sepals, petals, stamens and carpels
  • Incomplete - lacking one of the 4 main flower parts
dioecious holly
Dioecious - Holly

Female flower Male flower Berries on female

inflorescence terms
Inflorescence terms
  • Often flowers, especially small flowers, are gathered into a structure known as an inflorescence – an aggregation of flowers on a single flowering branch
  • bract - more or less modified leaf that subtends flower or flower groups - bract can look like normal leaf
  • bract can also look like petal - petalous - dogwoods have big white "petals" that are really petaloid bracts
  • peduncle - stalk of cluster of flowers
  • pedicel - stalk of individual flower
  • petiole - leaf stalk
types of inflorescence
Types of Inflorescence

1. indeterminant - youngest flower at apex - in theory could produce flowers forever - some may by fruiting while apex still flowering - include - racemes, panicle, spike, corymb, head, umbel, catkin

2. determinant - oldest flowers at apex - moving down younger flowers - cyme, scorpiod cyme

raceme
Raceme

Larkspur

panicle
Panicle

Panicum - switchgrass

umbel
Umbel

Wild parsnip Queen Anne’s Lace

slide19

Sunflower –

Composite head

inflorescence

catkin
Catkin

Alder catkin

scorpoid cyme
Scorpoid Cyme

Onosmodium

slide24

Pollination syndromes

among the phloxes

slide26

Honeybee

covered with

pollen

slide28

Honeybee

pollinating

beebalm –

Monarda sp.

slide29

With visible light with UV light

Nectar guides for honeybees

slide30

Cyrtid fly

pollinating

a composite

slide40

Wild oats –

Whole plant

fruit types
Fruit Types
  • A fruit may be defined as a matured ovary
  • There are two basic fruit types – dry or fleshy. These types arise from the development of the pericarp
  • The pericarp may become dry and these form dry fruits
  • The pericarp may also become soft, thick and fleshy – and these form fleshy fruits
slide50

Violet

flower

types

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