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Flowers and Fruit. Flower Structure. Generalized flowers - 2 outer sets of sterile parts, 2 inner sets of fertile parts Outer sterile part - sepals, collectively the calyx - may do photosynthesis, protect flower, usually like leaves in texture, protect bud - form outer covering of bud

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Flower Structure

  • Generalized flowers - 2 outer sets of sterile parts, 2 inner sets of fertile parts

  • Outer sterile part - sepals, collectively the calyx - may do photosynthesis, protect flower, usually like leaves in texture, protect bud - form outer covering of bud

  • Next sterile part - petals - not like leaves in texture, usually not green, collectively called corolla - petalloid - petal like in appearance

  • Both sepals and petals can be fused - so sepals joined together, petals joined together

  • Perianth - calyx and corolla together - used when the two cannot be distinguished - sometimes sepals and petals are called tepals for perianth if very similar in appearance – like in Tulips

  • If only one set of sterile parts, they are always called sepals; sometimes whole perianth is missing

  • First fertile parts - stamens - male – androecium - Can be sterile and modified to look like petals

  • Innermost fertile parts - pistils, female - gynoecium



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Carpels and Ovaries

  • Flowering plants always have enclosed ovary wrapped in a carpel - nonflowering plants don't - this is the vessel of the angiosperm

  • Carpel is highly modified leaf - a simple pistil is one ovary

  • Pistil may be made up of one carpel or several fused carpels

  • Often the bottom part called the ovary, with stigma at top to receive pollen, style connects them - fused carpels may have separate style and stigma or they may all be fused




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Plant Sexuality

  • Monoecious - separate flowers for male and female both on one plant - corn

  • Dioecious - male and female plants are separate - separate sexes - gingko

  • Perfect flower - flower has stamens and carpels – bisexual flowers

  • Imperfect flower - lacks either stamens or carpels - will be staminate or carpellate (pistillate)

  • Complete - has sepals, petals, stamens and carpels

  • Incomplete - lacking one of the 4 main flower parts




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Dioecious - Holly

Female flower Male flower Berries on female


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Inflorescence terms

  • Often flowers, especially small flowers, are gathered into a structure known as an inflorescence – an aggregation of flowers on a single flowering branch

  • bract - more or less modified leaf that subtends flower or flower groups - bract can look like normal leaf

  • bract can also look like petal - petalous - dogwoods have big white "petals" that are really petaloid bracts

  • peduncle - stalk of cluster of flowers

  • pedicel - stalk of individual flower

  • petiole - leaf stalk



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Types of Inflorescence

1. indeterminant - youngest flower at apex - in theory could produce flowers forever - some may by fruiting while apex still flowering - include - racemes, panicle, spike, corymb, head, umbel, catkin

2. determinant - oldest flowers at apex - moving down younger flowers - cyme, scorpiod cyme


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Raceme

Larkspur


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Panicle

Panicum - switchgrass




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Umbel

Wild parsnip Queen Anne’s Lace


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Sunflower –

Composite head

inflorescence


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Catkin

Alder catkin


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Scorpoid Cyme

Onosmodium



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Pollination syndromes

among the phloxes



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Honeybee

covered with

pollen



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Honeybee

pollinating

beebalm –

Monarda sp.


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With visible light with UV light

Nectar guides for honeybees


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Cyrtid fly

pollinating

a composite











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Wild oats –

Whole plant



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Fruit Types

  • A fruit may be defined as a matured ovary

  • There are two basic fruit types – dry or fleshy. These types arise from the development of the pericarp

  • The pericarp may become dry and these form dry fruits

  • The pericarp may also become soft, thick and fleshy – and these form fleshy fruits



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Violet

flower

types


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