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EUROPE III (CHAPTER 1: 78-95). REGIONS OF EUROPE. WESTERN BRITISH ISLES NORTHERN MEDITERRANEAN EASTERN. MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE. MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE. SIX COUNTRIES A DISCONTINUOUS REGION ON THE PERIPHERY CULTURAL CONTINUITY DATES FROM GRECO-ROMAN TIMES MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE

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Europe iii chapter 1 78 95 l.jpg
EUROPE III(CHAPTER 1: 78-95)


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REGIONS OF

EUROPE

  • WESTERN

  • BRITISH ISLES

  • NORTHERN

  • MEDITERRANEAN

  • EASTERN



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MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE

  • SIX COUNTRIES

  • A DISCONTINUOUS REGION

  • ON THE PERIPHERY

  • CULTURAL CONTINUITY DATES FROM GRECO-ROMAN TIMES

  • MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE

    • HOT - DRY SUMMERS

    • WARM/COOL - MOIST WINTERS


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ITALY

  • MOST POPULATED OF MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

  • BEST CONNECTED TO THE EUROPEAN CORE

  • MOST ECONOMICALLY ADVANCED

  • DISPLAYS A SHARP NORTH/SOUTH CONTRAST (ANCONA LINE )

  • MILAN

    • ITALY’S LARGEST CITY AND MANUFACTURING CENTER

    • ALSO THE COUNTRY’S FINANCIAL AND SERVICE-INDUSTRY CENTER


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ITALY

  • ROME

    • FOUNDED ABOUT 3,000 YEARS AGO

    • ATTAINED AN ESTIMATED POPULATION OF 1 MILLION < THE END OF THE 1ST CENTURY AD

    • ONLY 30,000 PEOPLE BY THE 13TH CENTURY

    • BECAME ITALY’S CAPITAL IN 1870

    • CURRENTLY HAS ABOUT 2.6 MILLION PEOPLE

  • VATICAN CITY

    • AN ENCLAVE WITHIN ROME

    • THE HEADQUARTERS OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM

    • FUNCTIONS AS AN INDEPENDENT ENTITY


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EASTERN

EUROPE

REGIONS

  • WESTERN

  • NORTHERN

  • MEDITERRANEAN

  • EASTERN


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EASTERN EUROPE(REGIONAL IDENTIFIERS)

  • EUROPE’S LARGEST REGION

  • ADJOINS 3 OF 4 OTHER EUROPEAN REGIONS

  • CONTAINS THE MOST COUNTRIES

  • INCLUDES EUROPE’S LARGEST STATE

  • INCORPORATES EUROPE’S POOREST COUNTRY

  • IN 1990, NONE OF ITS STATES COULD MEET THE CRITERIA FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EU

  • REACHES INTO THE RUSSIAN ZONE OF INFLUENCE


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KEY CONCEPTS

  • BALKANIZATION

  • IRREDENTISM

  • ETHNIC CLEANSING

  • DEVOLUTION

  • SHATTER BELT


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BALKANIZATION

  • FROM THE VERB BALKANIZE, WHICH MEANS TO BREAK UP (AS IN A REGION) INTO SMALLER AND OFTEN HOSTILE UNITS

  • ORIGINATES FROM A MOUNTAIN RANGE IN BULGARIA

  • APPLIED TO THE SOUTHERN HALF OF EASTERN EUROPE, i.e., THE BALKAN COUNTRIES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA


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UNDERLYING FORCES

  • CENTRIFUGAL FORCES

    • REFER TO FORCES THAT TEND TO DIVIDE A COUNTRY

      • Religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences

  • CENTRIPETAL FORCES

    • FORCES THAT UNITE AND BIND A COUNTRY TOGETHER

      • A strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith


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IRREDENTISM

  • A POLICY OF CULTURAL EXTENSION AND POLITICAL EXPANSION AIMED AT A NATIONAL GROUP LIVING IN A NEIGHBORING COUNTRY

RIVER & BORDER

MINORITY

POPULATION

A

BORDER

ADJUSTMENT

B

A

COUNTRIES


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ETHNIC GROUPS IN

EASTERN EUROPE


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ETHNIC CLEANSING

  • REFERS TO THE FORCIBLE OUSTER OF ENTIRE POPULATIONS FROM THEIR HOMELANDS BY STRONGER POWERS BENT ON TAKING THEIR TERRITORIES

MINORITY

POPULATION

A

B

A

BORDER

COUNTRIES


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DEVOLUTION

  • THE PROCESS WHEREBY REGIONS WITHIN A STATE DEMAND AND GAIN POLITICAL STRENGTH AND GROWING AUTONOMY AT THE EXPENSE OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT


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DEVOLUTION

IN

EUROPE


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SHATTER BELT

  • A TERM APPLIED TO EASTERN EUROPE BY GEOGRAPHERS TO DESCRIBE A ZONE OF CHRONIC POLITICAL SPLINTERING AND FRACTURING

  • WHY HERE?


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ETHNIC

MOSIAC

OF

EASTERN

EUROPE


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SUBREGIONS OF EASTERN EUROPE

  • COUNTRIES FACING THE BALTIC SEA

  • THE LANDLOCKED CENTER

  • COUNTRIES FACING THE ADRIATIC SEA

  • COUNTRIES FACING THE BLACK SEA


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COUNTRIES FACING THE BALTIC SEA

  • POLAND

    • A CLASSIC NATION-STATE

    • TRADITIONALLY AGRARIAN - WHEAT

    • POST WWII INDUSTRY - SILESIA

    • WARSAW - PRIMATE CITY

  • LITHUANIA

    • LOST INDEPENDENCE IN 1940, REGAINED IN 1991

    • KALININGRAD - A RUSSIAN EXCLAVE

  • LATVIA

    • SIMILAR HISTORY AS LITHUANIA

    • CONSTITUTE BARE MAJORITY IN OWN COUNTRY

  • BELARUS: RUSSIA’S CLOSEST ALLY


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THE LANDLOCKED CENTER

  • CZECH REPUBLIC

    • THE REGION’S MOST WESTERNIZED

    • PRAGUE- A CLASSIC PRIMATE CITY

  • SLOVAKIA

    • THE LEAST DEVELOPED, MOST RURAL PART OF “CZECHOSLOVAKIA”

  • HUNGARY

    • A NATION-STATE OF 10 MILLION

    • BUDAPEST- A CLASSIC PRIMATE CITY


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COUNTRIES FACING THE BLACK SEA

  • BULGARIA: LIBERATED BY RUSSIA IN 1878

  • ROMANIA: A FORMER ROMAN PROVINCE; RAW MATERIALS (COAL, IRON ORE, OIL, NATURAL GAS)

  • MOLDOVA: AGRICULTURAL

  • UKRAINE: LARGEST AND MOST POPULOUS; AGRICULTURAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE


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COUNTRIES FACING THE ADRIATIC SEA

  • SLOVENIA: FIRST TO SECEDE; ETHNICALLY MOST HOMOGENEOUS

  • CROATIA

  • BOSNIA: CENTRALLY POSITIONED

  • SERBIA: LARGEST AND MOST POPULOUS

  • MACEDONIA: 65% MACEDONIAN, 21% ALBANIAN

  • SERBIA-MONTENEGRO: INCLUDES SERBIA, KOSOVO, VOJVODINA, AND MONTENEGRO

  • ALBANIA: REMNANT OF TURKISH OTTOMAN EMPIRE; 70% MUSLIMS; LOWEST ECONOMIC RANKING IN EUROPE


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EUROPE III(CHAPTER 1: 87-105)


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