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Elaboration: Strategic Teaching To Improve Student Writing






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Elaboration: Strategic Teaching To Improve Student Writing. Part 2: Lessons 2 - 4 Asking the Questions that Lead to Elaboration, Recognizing Elaboration, Show Don't Tell, Specific Concrete Details versus General Language OSPI Instructional Support Materials for Writing
Elaboration: Strategic Teaching To Improve Student Writing

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Slide 1

Elaboration: Strategic TeachingTo Improve Student Writing

Part 2: Lessons 2 - 4

Asking the Questions that Lead to Elaboration, Recognizing Elaboration, Show Don't Tell, Specific Concrete Details versus General Language

OSPI Instructional Support Materials for Writing

These instructional support materials were developed by Washington teachers to help students improve their writing.

Version 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 2

Nikki Elliott-Schuman – OSPI, Project Director

Charlotte Carr – Retired Seattle SD, Facilitator

Barbara Ballard – Coupeville SD

Anne Beitlers – Seattle SD

Marcie Belgard – Richland SD

Betsy Cornell – Moses Lake SD

Lydia Fesler – Spokane SD

Lori Hadley – Puyallup SD

Lissa Humphreys – East Valley SD (Spokane)

Kathleen McGuinness – Kennewick SD

Lisa McKeen – East Valley SD (Yakima)

Sharon Schilperoort – Yakima SD

Holly Stein – Eastside Catholic High School

OSPI Writing Instructional Support MaterialsCore Development Team

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 3

Purpose

To share teaching strategies that will help students develop a piece of writing that elaborates on a single idea and addresses the needs and interests of a particular audience.

Elaboration is critical for clear and effective writing.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 4

Elaboration Module Series of Lessons

  • Defining Elaboration

  • Asking the Questions that Lead to Elaboration

  • Recognizing Elaboration

  • Show, Don't Tell

  • Specific, Concrete Details versus General Language

  • Elaboration within Sentences

  • Layering -- Elaboration Using Multiple Sentences

  • Criteria for Assessment

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 5

ASKING QUESTIONS THAT LEAD TO ELABORATION

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 6

Elaboration answers questions for the reader.

What

problems?

Teenagers have problems.

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 7

Elaboration answers questions for the reader.

  • Teenagers have problems. For example, teens don’t always have enough money to buy what they want.

Hmmm . . .what do teenagers want to buy?

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 8

Elaboration answers questions for the reader.

  • Teenagers have problems. For example, 80% of teens don’t always have enough money to buy CD’s, food for after school, and the kind of clothes they want, according to Teen Journal.

Oh…now I understand. Teens want money for CDs, food, and clothes.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 2

Slide 9

Elaboration answers questions for the reader.

Turn to your partner and add even more elaboration to the previous slide. Discuss what kind of CDs, food, and clothes teens may want to buy.

Think about who will read what you write. What information will help them understand your idea/argument more clearly?

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 10

Elaboration answers questions for the reader.

Perhaps your samples sounded like this.

Teenagers have problems. For example, 80% of teens don’t always have enough money to buy CD’s, like the new CD from Clutch,snack and junk food for after school, and the kind of clothes they want like expensive jeans from Abercrombie and Fitch, according to Teen Journal.

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 11

Partner Practice

  • Think about an activity, a sport, or a class you believe should be

  • offered to the students at school. Write a multiple-paragraph letter

  • to the principal persuading him or her why this activity, sport, or

  • class should be available.

  • After reading the paragraph on the next slide, taken from a 7th grade WASL paper, write questions that you would need answered to understand what class the writer is proposing. What do you want to know more about? What do you wish the writer would have told you?

  • Discuss your questions with your classmates.

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 12

Huh?! I want to know more. . .

I wonder if this paper is going to be about affirmative action or women’s rights?

I believe we should all have equal rights and should be treated the same; not looking down on those who are younger than us. That’s how it is at our school. Eighth and ninth grade students tease seventh graders and don’t give them the respect they want to be given. That’s why I think the seventh grade students should be offered the elective “Media.”

Sounds like their school has some problems with how kids interact – too bad!

I’m curious what kind of teasing she’s talking about? Pranks or really bad stuff. . .

Media?? MEDIA? I wonder if this is like a newspaper class. This threw me off. . . I hope she explains.

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 13

Your Turn

  • Think about the questions you discussed on the previous slide.

  • Rewrite that paragraph from the previous slide using elaboration strategies from Lesson One. Include information that the reader wants and needs to know. Make up any information you need in order to elaborate effectively for your principal. See student sample - Media Class

Lesson 2

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 14

Elaboration Module Series of Lessons

  • Defining Elaboration

  • Asking the Questions that Lead to Elaboration

  • Recognizing Elaboration

  • Show, Don't Tell

  • Specific, Concrete Details versus General Language

  • Elaboration within Sentences

  • Layering -- Elaboration Using Multiple Sentences

  • Criteria for Assessment

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 15

RECOGNIZING ELABORATION

Lesson 3

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 16

Where is the elaboration?

The main reason I love Halloween is the candy. Oh my gosh, it’s like heaven—even for big kids. What I’m trying to say is that my mom lets me collect and eat all the mini candy bars, fruity treats, and sour chewies that I can. When I get to heaven, it will have all those kinds of candy. Last year, I was running out the door at 5:30, pillowcase in hand, hitting the houses in my neighborhood with my friend Steven. You might not believe it, but I got 237 individual servings of candy, and it was my highest record yet. I figure at 20 pieces a day it will take me 12 days to polish it all off. There’s nothing better than candy if you’re a kid.

Lesson 3

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 17

Where is the elaboration?

  • What I’m trying to say is that my mom lets me collect and eat all the mini candy bars, fruity treats, and sour chewies that I can.

    • DEFINE

      The writer is attempting to

      define how getting candy

      on Halloween is like heaven.

Lesson 3

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 18

Where is the elaboration?

  • Last year, I was running out the door at 5:30, pillowcase in hand, hitting the houses in my neighborhood with my friend Steven.

    - ANECDOTE

    The writer is including a bit of a narrative story with personal experience to make his point about how he was going

    to get candy.

Lesson 3

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 19

Where is the elaboration?

  • You might not believe it but I got 237 individual servings of candy, and it was my highest record yet. I figure at 20 pieces a day it will take me 12 days to polish it all off.

    • STATISTICS

    • The writer is making up or remembering statistics that make his point about getting a large amount of candy.

Lesson 3

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 20

Recognizing Elaboration

  • If you can find elaboration strategies in someone else’s writing, you become more aware of them.

  • If you are more aware of them, you will become more thoughtful about threading it into your writing to. . .

    TELL THE READER MORE.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 3

Slide 21

Recognizing Elaboration with a Partner

  • The following paragraphs are also about Halloween. With your class divided into small groups, mark the types of elaboration on each of the four paragraphs.

    See student sample - Halloween paragraphs

  • Discuss what kinds of elaboration are effective? Easy to recognize?

Lesson 3

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 22

Your Turn

  • Find the types of elaboration in the following paragraph written about adding a home economics class to the school curriculum.

    See student sample - Home Economics

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 3

Slide 23

Elaboration Module Series of Lessons

  • Defining Elaboration

  • Asking Questions that Lead to Elaboration

  • Recognizing Elaboration

  • Show, Don't Tell

  • Specific, Concrete Details versus General Language

  • Elaboration within Sentences

  • Layering -- Elaboration Using Multiple Sentences

  • Criteria for Assessment

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 24

SHOW, DON’T TELL

Lesson 4

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 25

Show, don’t tell.

  • What is the difference between these two sentences? Which one is better and why?

  • A. The room was a mess.

  • B. Rumpled bedspread, piled up clothes, and jumbled dresser greeted me as I pushed my way into the room.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 4

Slide 26

Definition of Telling and Showing

  • Telling is the use of broad generalizations.

  • Showing is the use of details, facts, statistics, examples, anecdotes, quotations, dialogue – elaboration– to develop, persuade, explain, or enliven a story.

Lesson 4

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 27

White shirts are dumb.

White shirts are hard to clean, show pizza stains, and make you look like a waiter in a cheesy restaurant.

Show with Description

Lesson 4

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 28

Telling vs. Showing 1

There are many fascinating things to see at the Farmer’s Market, which has been around for a long time.

Rows of tangerines, crisp red apples, long purple eggplants, and succulent strawberries invite the shopper to stop at every farmer’s stand. Many of the farmers in the Farmers’ Market have sold their

home-grown vegetables and fruits since the early 1900’s when the market was the only place to buy fresh food in the city. Now the market has expanded to include bakeries, funky antique stores, and a comic book vendor. The market is a visual feast for tourists and a keepsake for our town.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 4

Slide 29

Telling vs. Showing 2

The Beatles started a new trend in music in the mid-sixties.

For many Americans the evening of February 9,1964, was a turning point in musical history. On this evening the Beatles made their debut in America on the Ed Sullivan television show. Kathi Anderson, then sixteen in Chicago, remembers, “My friends and I sat shaking and hugging each other on the couch in my living room as the Fab Four bounced out onto the stage. Their shaggy hair shook as they sang ‘I Want to Hold Your Hand’ and ‘She Loves You’ with an energy and sound we’d never heard before. We were instantly and forever in love.” That night the British Invasion, as it was called, began.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 4

Slide 30

Telling vs. Showing 3The Seattle Sonics, led by Ray Allen, won Friday’s game.

The Seattle Sonics game against the Minneapolis Timberwolves on Friday night ended with the Sonics beating the Timberwolves 107-102 in overtime.  Ray Allen, the Sonics’ star, struggled all night with his shot, but he ended up scoring 32 points for the game. Allen averages 31.5 points per game. According to the City Daily News, "Allen was 7-for-24 from the field in regulation, but went 3-for-4 in overtime, including two 3-pointers, and scored all but two of Seattle's points in the extra five minutes."  With that win, Seattle won the first game of the new season.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 4

Slide 31

Telling vs. Showing 4Manastash Field is dangerous.

Manastash Soccer Field has caused more injuries to players than any other in the valley according to Tony Vela, the director of the North Valley Soccer Association. “The field is nothing more than sand and hard clay. Clouds of dust explode into the air when players kick the ball. My players say it’s hard to see and breathe. When they fall, they end up with bloody shins.” Vela called upon theNorth Valley Parks Department to spend its money on fixing fields rather than on useless advertising.

Lesson 4

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 32

Some General Sentences

With a partner, discuss how to make these sentences show, rather than tell.

Pick two and rewrite them on your own.

The man in the car was angry.

I was tired last night.

The pizza was delicious.

The car was filthy.

Lesson 4

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 33

Not So General Sentences

I knew I needed to see the situation in my head first and then try to describe it for the reader.

Each group should select one

revision from the previous slide

to share with the class.

See student samples - General vs. Specific

Reflections HSReflections MS

Lesson 4

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 34

Reflections

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 4

Slide 35

Your Turn

  • Think back to the examples from the Beatles, the Farmers’ Market, Ray Allen, and the Manastash Soccer Field. Discuss with your partner which example appealed most to you. Why?

  • Which example might your principal or one of your parents like? Why?

Lesson 4

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 36

Elaboration Module Series of Lessons

  • Defining Elaboration

  • Asking Questions that Lead to Elaboration

  • Recognizing Elaboration

  • Show, Don't Tell

  • Specific, Concrete Details versus General Language

  • Elaboration within Sentences

  • Layering -- Elaboration Using Multiple Sentences

  • Criteria for Assessment

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 37

SPECIFIC, CONCRETE DETAILS vs. GENERAL LANGUAGE

Lesson 5

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 38

Words are like rocks.

They come in all sizes. Small rocks represent small words. Big rocks represent big words.

BUT . . .

Lesson 5

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 39

Rocks are not as strong as CONCRETE.

CONCRETE details are the specific, exact names of things.

Using CONCRETE details will make your paper stronger, just like CONCRETE makes a building stronger. Concrete details are SPECIFIC.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 5

Slide 40

Look for the SPECIFIC details.

  • Meredith and Maria slammed their lockers and ran down the Freshmen Hall toward the lunchroom. How much longer until they would have their official Driver’s License and could eat off campus? They could barely stand the thought of eating hot lunch pizza, a fruit cup, and washing it down with a 6-ounce carton of chocolate milk. Three more months until they turned 16. Agony.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 5

Slide 41

Using Specific Details

School lunches are (good) (bad).

Choose either side.

Rewrite the sentence on the

left, using specific language.

Write more than one

sentence to elaborate.

See student samples -

Grade 10 Lunch

Grade 7 Lunch

Lesson 5

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 42

Be specific.

  • Your word choices do not have to be

    • Big words

    • Fancy words

    • Words from a thesaurus

  • Remember, to elaborate powerfully and

    effectively, you need to be SPECIFIC.

  • Use concrete, specific details.

Lesson 5

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 43

Work with a partner.

  • Find the specific, concrete details in the student sample, Locker. Highlight these specific details.

See student sample - Locker

Lesson 5

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Slide 44

Your Turn

Add specific, concrete details to make the

following paragraph effective.

Besides helping to forget the problems life throws at us for a while, acting is a fun learning experience. You get to pose as characters much different from yourself and for a short period of time, get to walk in someone else’s shoes. You can be famous or live in a foreign country. With acting you can be whatever you like.

See student sample - Grade 10 DramaSee - Elaboration Scoring Guide

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.

Lesson 5

Slide 45

Feedback, please

We welcome your comments. Please feel free to try these lessons and send feedback to Nikki Elliott-Schuman at nelliott@ospi.wednet.edu. We appreciate your labeling the subject line as Feedback: OSPI Instructional Support Materials.

Copyright 2006 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved.


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