Congressional APA Caucus Education Summit NCLB and API English Language Learners Dr. Clara C. Park Cal. State Univ., Northridge Imm. Past-President, National Assn. for Asian and Pacific American Education Asian and Pacific Islanders (U.S. Census Bureau, 2003):
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Congressional APA CaucusEducation Summit
NCLB and API English Language Learners
Dr. Clara C. Park
Cal. State Univ., Northridge
Imm. Past-President, National Assn. for Asian and Pacific American Education
= 11.3 million=> 4.1% of the U.S. population
= 17.9% of APIs spoke another language at home
=>Over 30 Asian groups and 21 PI groups exhibiting amazing levels of diversity;
= 10.4% spoke English less than “very well”, although in reality the majority of them may belong to this category, as most of them are 1st generation immigrants, and may not have responded to the census survey being limited English proficient.
(cf.: White teachers=83.3% of all teachers vs. 57.1% of total student population is Whites. )
=10.3% of total student population (=49,324,849 in 2005-06);
=10.2% (= 497,507.05) of them are APIs;
=> Roughly 22% of APIs are English language learners (ELLs);
APIs =11.55% (723,545):
Asians= 8.25% (516,553)
Whites= 28.56% (1,787,192);
African- Ams = 7.39% (462,330)
Hispanics = 48.68% (3,046,432)
= 25% of total student population (=6,258,943);
(=> 31% of national total ELLs);
= 8.2% (=128,630) of them are APIs.
==> 16.3% of APIs are ELLs.
English Learners by Language, U.S. ( 2000-01)
English Learners by Language, California 2006-07
Table 1Statewide 2007 Base APIsOverall and for Student Subgroups
Note: Tables A and C exclude schools in the Alternative Schools Accountability Model (ASAM), special
--Contained a specific clause to provide L1/bilingual instructional services to nation’s growing ELL population;
--The original intent and spirit of the Act was to provide equal educational opportunity to language minority students, if necessary, via L1 instructional services.
--Since then, after every five years, the re-authorization of the Act has taken place and continued to preserve its original intent and spirit until NCLB was enacted in 2001.
--Asian Dropout Rate in Lowell, MA = 42.9% vs. Asian Enrollment =28.9%
--MA => 1 ESL teacher / 61 ELLs;
-- NY => 1 ESL Teacher / 259 ELLs;
-- WA => 1 ESL teacher/ 74 ELLs.
-- CA => 1 Bilingual Teacher / 147 ELLs;
-- NY => 1 Bilingual Teacher / 177 ELLs;
-- WA => 1 Bilingual Teacher / 161 ELLs.
The new NCLB must do away with the assessment of Asian and other ELLs for the first 3 years, which is currently required.
Provide universities, states, and districts funds to train ESL and Asian bilingual teachers & specialists.
Use multiple forms of assessment for Asian and other ELLs, not just standardized tests.
The U.S. Dept of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics, needs to collect a comprehensive data of ELLs and certified ESL & bilingual teachers, which is disaggregated by ethnicity, native language, SES, ELL status, and program type to effectively address the instructional needs of Asian and other ELLs.
-- There are vast Asian language resources in the Asian American communities which Asian immigrants have brought with them.
--Thus, they can readily be tapped into to recruit them into teaching profession with financial incentives, i.e., scholarships or fellowships, in order to provide effective bilingual education for APA ELLs.
Newcomer High, San Francisco 48% 36% 1.4%
3rd St. Sch., Los Angeles 52% 1.1% 1.1%