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College Admissions Counseling. Summer 2009. Monday, July 6. Introductions Syllabus Review College Preparation: Personal Experiences College Admissions and Counselors Ethical Issues in College Admission Counseling Equity and College-Going College Preparation Programs

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Monday, July 6

  • Introductions

  • Syllabus Review

  • College Preparation: Personal Experiences

  • College Admissions and Counselors

  • Ethical Issues in College Admission Counseling

  • Equity and College-Going

  • College Preparation Programs

  • College Choice Theory



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- Any surprises about your partner’s educational journey?- What messages do you think your students are getting? - Are they similar/different to the messages you received? - How many of you have children? What messages are you giving your children? - How is that message similar or different than the ones we give to our students.

Personal Experiences


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My Educational Journey was…

  • Scenic route

  • Congested

  • Extended Vacation

  • Stop & Go

  • Bumpy Road

  • Stop Signs

  • Guided Tour

  • Smooth Sailing

  • No Traffic

  • Uphill

  • Delayed Flight

  • Sinking ship

  • Hang gliding

  • Adventure Tour

  • Foggy

  • Foggy, but clearing

  • Detour

  • Searching

  • Rolling a Rock Uphill

  • Stepping Stones

  • Fly by Night


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School Counseling and College Access

  • Counselors, when frequently available and allowed to provide direct services to students and parents, can have a positive impact on students’ aspirations, achievements, and financial aid.


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School Counseling and College Access

  • Schools that have improved counseling and college counseling have increased college access for low-income, rural, and urban students as well as students of color.


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School Counseling and College Access

  • If counselors were available to begin actively supporting students and their families in middle school in preparing for college, as opposed to simply disseminating information, students’ chances of enrolling in a four-year college would increase.


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School Counseling and College Access

  • Increasing the numbers of counselors available and the amount of time they devote to college advising tasks is one of the top reforms needed to improve college access.


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School Counseling and College Access

  • Counselors have an impact on the following components of the college preparation and advising task:

    • Structuring information and organizing activities that foster and support students’ college aspirations and an understanding of college and its importance

    • Assisting parents in understanding their role in fostering and supporting college aspirations, setting college expectations and motivating students

    • Assisting students in academic preparation for college

    • Supporting and influencing students in decision making about college

    • Organizationally focusing the school on its college mission


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Necessary Counseling Activities for Equitable College Access

  • Set high expectations and provide access to college counseling for all students to prepare for college or work

  • Provide access to college counseling and counselors by maintaining or increasing counseling staff and improving the student-to-counselor ratio


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School Counseling and College Counseling Associations

  • American School Counselor Association (ASCA)

  • National Association for College Admissions Counseling (NACAC)

  • American College Counseling Association (ACCA)

  • National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA)


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Ethics of College Admission Counseling

  • ASCA Ethical Standards

  • NACAC Statement of Principles of Good Practice

    • Most recent (2005) revision includes: statements of core values, mandatory practices, interpretations of mandatory practices, recommended best practices


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Possible Ethical Issues

  • Misrepresentation in school profiles

  • Manipulation in the reporting of standardized test scores

  • Failure to adequately monitor student behavior, especially with regard to multiple enrollment deposits and failure to honor early decision commitments

  • All students must have equal access to information about colleges and the college admission process

  • Confidentiality of college recommendations and student applications


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Ethical Case Study

John has been admitted to both State University and Private College. By late April he has yet to make a final decision regarding the college he will attend. He tells his counselor he has decided to send enrollment deposits to both institutions in order to keep his options open until he can visit both campuses.

*What instruction should the counselor give John to ensure

he fulfills his ethical obligation to the colleges involved?

*What school policies might be established to discourage

students from “double-depositing”?

*How might the counselor help all students understand

their ethical responsibilities throughout the application and admission process?


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Ethical Case Study

A school counselor is responsible for making arrangements for the upcoming college fair at her high school. She receives a special request from an alumna who will be representing her alma mater. The request is for a special room in which she may meet only with pre-selected students who have specific standardized scores.

*What ethical issues, if any, does this request raise?

*How might the counselor respond?


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Student Ethical Issues

  • The ethical expectation of making only one enrollment deposit

  • The necessity of honoring an early decision commitment

  • Student responsibility to be the sole authors of their applications


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Necessary Counseling Activities for Equitable College Access

  • Refine counselor roles and responsibilities to ensure that counselors spend more time providing direct service to students and less time on administrative duties

  • Continually develop and assess counseling department priorities and outcomes



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Disparities in College Access

  • Across all achievement levels, lowest SES students less likely to apply to or attend college than are the highest SES students, while students of color and poor students are less likely to start or finish college

  • Despite extensive policy efforts and financial aid, the college participation gap between low-income and high income students today is roughly the same as in the 1960’s


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Equity

  • Most low income, educationally disadvantaged students are educated in schools that are under-resourced, staffed with lesser quality/knowledgeable teachers, and have far fewer counselors that are needed



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Keys To College Access

  • Educational expectations

  • Academic achievement

  • Supportive family members

  • A school with:

    • A college prepatory curriculum

    • A college culture, and

    • Supportive, knowledgeable staff, including counselors, teachers, and administrators



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College Readiness: Students are college ready when they have the knowledge, skills and behaviors to complete a college course of study successfully, without remediation.


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Intervention Programs have the knowledge, skills and behaviors to complete a college course of study successfully, without remediation.

Developed as an alternative for assisting students whose schools had failed them in their college readiness and access quest.


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Brief History of Pre-College Intervention Programs have the knowledge, skills and behaviors to complete a college course of study successfully, without remediation.

  • 1964, Upward Bound (UB)

  • 1965 Higher Education Act, TRIO Programs--UB, Talent Search, Student Support Services

  • 1981, I Had A Dream

  • 1998, Gear-Up (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduation Preparation)


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Federal Investments have the knowledge, skills and behaviors to complete a college course of study successfully, without remediation.

  • TRIO programs $800 million

    • Serves individuals

  • GEAR UP $200 million

    • Serves cohorts of students

    • Mandates a partnership web among students, families, K-12 schools, colleges, and community organizations


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Other Intervention Programs have the knowledge, skills and behaviors to complete a college course of study successfully, without remediation.

  • States: College Making It Happen (CA), Children’s Crusade for Higher Education (RI), Get Ready (MN)

  • Private Programs:I Have a Dream, AVID, MESA

  • Colleges & Universities: One in three PSEs have their own program


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College Choice Theoryhttp://video.google.com/videosearch?q=upward%20bound&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv#q=upward+bound+trio+programs&hl=en&emb=0&client=firefox-a


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College Choice Theorieshttp://video.google.com/videosearch?q=upward%20bound&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv#q=upward+bound+trio+programs&hl=en&emb=0&client=firefox-a

  • Economic models (“college as an investment”)

    • Heller (1997), Leslie & Brinkman (1998), Paulson & St. John (2002)

  • Psychology models (“the influence of others in decision-making process”)

    • Hossler & Gallagher (1987)

  • Sociology models (“impact of college on social status”)

    • Kao & Tienda (1998)


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College Choice Theory (Hossler & Gallagher, 1987)http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=upward%20bound&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv#q=upward+bound+trio+programs&hl=en&emb=0&client=firefox-a

  • Predisposition (K-9th grade): development of college aspirations

  • Search (10th-12th grade): students begin to explore information about different colleges and universities

  • Choice (12th grade): college decisions; evaluations of colleges


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Parent Involvement and College Choicehttp://video.google.com/videosearch?q=upward%20bound&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv#q=upward+bound+trio+programs&hl=en&emb=0&client=firefox-a

  • Three Parental Activities of College Choice:

    • Setting aspirations (college predisposition, direction setting, education cost-benefit analysis, determining desired proximity or acceptable distance away from home, defining desired institutional prestige)

    • Encouragement toward college attendance (attitude, consistency, congruence)

    • Support: tangible, action-oriented activities parents engage in to support their child’s college aspirations


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Small Group Activityhttp://video.google.com/videosearch?q=upward%20bound&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv#q=upward+bound+trio+programs&hl=en&emb=0&client=firefox-a

  • Determine a grade level.

  • Develop a series of three college-related activities that would be fitting for that grade level. Use college choice theory as a guide.

  • Develop whole school, small group, and individual student activities and at least one parent activity.


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