chapter seventeen

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Set point Dieting is common among girlsOne in 20 teenagers takes dieting too seriously and has an eating disorderCulture and diet industry messages tell us to be thin so we will be happy and successful. Dieting as a Disease. Anorexia Nervosa . Restriction of eating Four Symptomsrefusal to maintain body weight of at least 85 percent intense fear of gaining weightdisturbed body perception and denial of problemabsence of menstruation.

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chapter seventeen

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1. Chapter Seventeen Early Adulthood: Emotional Problems

2. Set point Dieting is common among girls One in 20 teenagers takes dieting too seriously and has an eating disorder Culture and diet industry messages tell us to be thin so we will be happy and successful Dieting as a Disease Dieting as a Disease Set point—particular body weight that an individual’s homeostatic process strives to maintain Dieting is common among girls, not unusual for boys One in 20 teenagers takes dieting too seriously and has an eating disorder Culture and diet industry messages (via media) tell us to be thin so we will be happy and successful -almost 50 percent of women in North America have a BMI of less than 25, so they are not overweight at all -many young women connect self-concept with body imageDieting as a Disease Set point—particular body weight that an individual’s homeostatic process strives to maintain Dieting is common among girls, not unusual for boys One in 20 teenagers takes dieting too seriously and has an eating disorder Culture and diet industry messages (via media) tell us to be thin so we will be happy and successful -almost 50 percent of women in North America have a BMI of less than 25, so they are not overweight at all -many young women connect self-concept with body image

3. Anorexia Nervosa Restriction of eating Four Symptoms refusal to maintain body weight of at least 85 percent intense fear of gaining weight disturbed body perception and denial of problem absence of menstruation

4. Bulimia Nervosa Repeated episodic binge eating followed by purging To be clinically diagnosed, bingeing and purging must occur at least once a week for three months the person must have uncontrollable urges to overeat the person must show distorted self-judgment about body image

5. Theories of Eating Disorders Psychoanalytic Behaviorism Cognitive Sociocultural Epigenetic Theories of Eating Disorders Psychoanalytic: Women have conflict with mothers, cannot separate Behaviorism: For people with low self-esteem, bingeing and purging relieve states of distress and tension Cognitive: Women competing in business against men want to project masculine image Sociocultural: Women feel cultural pressure to be slender Epigenetic: Girls who are overwhelmed by development find that anorexia stops growth and decreases presence of sexual hormones Theories of Eating Disorders Psychoanalytic: Women have conflict with mothers, cannot separate Behaviorism: For people with low self-esteem, bingeing and purging relieve states of distress and tension Cognitive: Women competing in business against men want to project masculine image Sociocultural: Women feel cultural pressure to be slender Epigenetic: Girls who are overwhelmed by development find that anorexia stops growth and decreases presence of sexual hormones

6. Drug Abuse and Addiction Drug addiction Young adults more likely to be addicts Marked gender, ethnic, and national variations in rates of drug addiction Social context encourages use and abuse Drug Abuse and Addiction Drug addiction—physiological or psychological drive to ingest more of a drug -addiction begins with use Young adults more likely to be addicts Marked gender, ethnic, and national variations in rates of drug addiction -men more likely than women -European Americans and Hispanic Americans more likely to use than are Asian-Americans or African Americans -English-speaking countries more likely to use drugs College students particularly vulnerable -more to alcohol Social context encourages use and abuse -on their own -rock concerts -spectator sports -other group activities Consequences of drug use often serious -avoid, drop out of, or flunk out of college -work below potential -lose or quit jobs -involved in transitory, uncommitted sexual relations -die violently -experience serious psychological difficulties Consequences of drug use often serious -avoid, drop out of, or flunk out of college -work below potential -lose or quit jobs -involved in transitory, uncommitted sexual relations -die violently -experience serious psychological difficultiesDrug Abuse and Addiction Drug addiction—physiological or psychological drive to ingest more of a drug -addiction begins with use Young adults more likely to be addicts Marked gender, ethnic, and national variations in rates of drug addiction -men more likely than women -European Americans and Hispanic Americans more likely to use than are Asian-Americans or African Americans -English-speaking countries more likely to use drugs College students particularly vulnerable -more to alcohol Social context encourages use and abuse -on their own -rock concerts -spectator sports -other group activities Consequences of drug use often serious -avoid, drop out of, or flunk out of college -work below potential -lose or quit jobs -involved in transitory, uncommitted sexual relations -die violently -experience serious psychological difficulties Consequences of drug use often serious -avoid, drop out of, or flunk out of college -work below potential -lose or quit jobs -involved in transitory, uncommitted sexual relations -die violently -experience serious psychological difficulties

7. Many young adults struggle with serious emotional difficulties Some difficulties may originate in childhood Psychopathology Psychopathology Many young adults struggle with serious emotional difficulties -12 percent experience at least one episode of -depression, schizophrenia, or pathological rage -made worse if using drugs or alcohol Some difficulties may originate in childhood -parents abusive, neglectful, or erratic -death of mother or alcoholism of father Typically, childhood disturbances, biological problems, and environmental stress are all involvedPsychopathology Many young adults struggle with serious emotional difficulties -12 percent experience at least one episode of -depression, schizophrenia, or pathological rage -made worse if using drugs or alcohol Some difficulties may originate in childhood -parents abusive, neglectful, or erratic -death of mother or alcoholism of father Typically, childhood disturbances, biological problems, and environmental stress are all involved

8. Between ages 20 and 35, at least 15 percent of women and 8 percent of men Major depression is fueled biochemically Remission is likely with treatment Depression Depression Between ages 20 and 35, at least 15 percent of women and 8 percent of men suffer from at least one severe episode of depression Major depression is fueled biochemically -neurotransmitters -hormones Remission is likely with treatment that includes cognitive therapy and medicationDepression Between ages 20 and 35, at least 15 percent of women and 8 percent of men suffer from at least one severe episode of depression Major depression is fueled biochemically -neurotransmitters -hormones Remission is likely with treatment that includes cognitive therapy and medication

9. 1 percent of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia Caused by genes and severe early trauma Medication seems to be most effective Schizophrenia Schizophrenia 1 percent of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia Caused by genes and severe early trauma such as anoxia at birth Medication seems to be most effective if person understands diseaseSchizophrenia 1 percent of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia Caused by genes and severe early trauma such as anoxia at birth Medication seems to be most effective if person understands disease

10. Violence In U.S., 1 male in every 100 between the ages of 15 and 25 dies violently Worldwide, young men more likely to die violently than women Developmentalists suggest two reasons Biological Psychological Violence In U.S., 1 male in every 100 between the ages of 15 and 25 dies violently -motor vehicle accident, homicide, or suicide Worldwide, young men more likely to die violently than women (especially between ages of 20 and 25) -4 times as many commit suicide -6 times as many are murdered -by nation or ethnic group, male-to-female ratio varies from 3:1 to 10:1 Developmentalists suggest two reasons -biological—unlike females, in males, higher levels of testosterone correlate with impulsive, angry reactions -psychological—high self-esteem and dashed expectations more likely to result in violence in the presence of alcohol, a weapon, or lack of self-restraintViolence In U.S., 1 male in every 100 between the ages of 15 and 25 dies violently -motor vehicle accident, homicide, or suicide Worldwide, young men more likely to die violently than women (especially between ages of 20 and 25) -4 times as many commit suicide -6 times as many are murdered -by nation or ethnic group, male-to-female ratio varies from 3:1 to 10:1 Developmentalists suggest two reasons -biological—unlike females, in males, higher levels of testosterone correlate with impulsive, angry reactions -psychological—high self-esteem and dashed expectations more likely to result in violence in the presence of alcohol, a weapon, or lack of self-restraint

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