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CS481/CS681 Fall 2007 History of Video Games Summary 1931 Pinball machine 1971, first commercial game introduced 2 game market crashes $10,000,000,000 industry Seven generations of hardware What’s the future? Pinball Bally Manufacturing Williams Manufacturing Midway Games

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summary
Summary
  • 1931 Pinball machine
  • 1971, first commercial game introduced
  • 2 game market crashes
  • $10,000,000,000 industry
  • Seven generations of hardware
  • What’s the future?
pinball
Pinball
  • Bally Manufacturing
  • Williams Manufacturing
  • Midway Games
  • Created the production, distribution, and consumer channels used by video game industry
japan pre history
Japan (Pre-history)
  • Early coin operated companies established by foreigners
    • Taito, (Sega + Rosen Enterprises = Sega Enterprises)
    • 1966 – Periscope
    • Imported to the US and Europe, expensive
    • Set the 25 cent price for coin operated machines
  • Meanwhile, back in the US ... computers rising
electronic computer games prehistory
Electronic / Computer games (Prehistory)
  • 1948: Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device patent for electronic game. Vacuum tubes controlled missiles firing at a target
  • 1951: Transistors replacing vacuum tubes at university computers. Students want games.
    • Checkers (1951)
    • TTT (1952)
    • Nimrod played Nim (UK)
birth
Birth
  • Spacewar, 1962, MIT students wanted to “test” the capabilities of their new DEC PDP-1
  • Gravity, warp
  • Widely distributed by DEC
  • Other games were not distributed (no internet)
commercialization
Commercialization
  • 1971: Galaxy Game
    • Clone of Spacewar
    • Stanford, 10 cents in student union
    • Ran until 1979
  • Bushnell, Dabney created custom arcade hardware for Spacewar clone - failure...
  • June 27, 1972 Bushnell/Dabney found Atari Inc. ... meanwhile...
games on television screens consoles
Games on Television Screens (Consoles)
  • Ralph Baer
    • 1967 – chase game
    • Light gun -> shooting, paddles -> tennis
    • Prototype played multiple games
    • No sound, overlays
    • 3 dials for vertical, horizontal, and spin
    • Magnavox bought it, and managed to sell 100K units
slide9
Pong
  • Al Alcorn, Atari’s first game engineer
  • 1972: Implemented Pong
    • Atari tried to get Bally’s to manufacture it
  • Machine malfunctioned during demo because it was too full of coins!
  • Atari decided to forget Bally’s and go into manufacturing!
  • Many Pong clones competed
70s creativity new game genres
70s Creativity, new game genres
  • 1974, Tank designed by Steve Bristow
  • 1973, Gotcha, pursuit
  • 1974, Gran Trak 10, Driving/Racing
  • 1976, Night Driver, sit down cabinet
  • 1975 Breakout, SP Pong
  • 1976 Death Race
golden age of arcade games 2
Golden Age of arcade games (2)
  • 1978:Space Invaders, (Taito) high score, no name
  • 1979, Star Fire, (Exidy), initials
  • 1979, Atari Football, smooth scrolling scree, trackball controller
  • Many Companies entered the business
    • Konami, Namco, Irem, SNK, Technos Japan.
    • Galaga, Defender, Scramble, Moon patrol
maze games pac man
Maze Games: Pac-Man
  • 1980, Namco, Originally Puck-man but changed name before releasing in the US.
    • Best selling arcade game up to that point
    • First identifiable video character
    • Cover of Time
    • 1981, MIT students enhancement kits for pac-man ended up producing Ms. Pac-Man (4 mazes)
  • 1982, Namco, Pole Position, Racing, POV
platform games
Platform Games
  • 1981, Donkey Kong, Nintendo
  • 1982, Donkey Kong Junior introduced Mario
  • 1983: Elevator Action
slide14
Tech
  • 1972: handheld TTT
  • 1976: game cartridges
  • 1977: Joystick
  • Vector graphics
    • 1979: Asteroids, others (but died after 1983 and raster)
  • Laserdisc
    • 1983: Dragon’s Lair, animated sequences, interactive movie
slide15
80s
  • 1982: EA born
  • PCs, game source code printed in magazines
  • Commodore 64
  • 1983, Snipes, first networked commerical text-mode game
    • Maze War (university research game)
    • Spasim (3d multiplayer space sim), precursor to Doom and Quake
  • Handheld LCD console
crash of 1983
Crash of 1983
  • Too many companies, too many bad games
  • So many ET the Extra Terrestrial game cartridges were left over that they had to be buried in a big hole in NM!
  • Lasted One Year!
video game consoles 3
Video game consoles (3)
  • Nintendo, NES (Famicon), Super Mario Brothers
    • Gamepad
    • 8 direction D pad with 2 or more action buttons
  • 1986: Dragon Quest precursor to RPG
  • 1987: Final Fantasy, Role playing game
  • 1986: Legend of Zelda
  • 1988: Nintendo Power Magazine
90 s 4
90’s (4)
  • Rising to match Hollywood
  • 3D graphics, sound cards, CDs, fast PCs
  • Internet based distribution, shareware,
  • 1992: RTS games, Dune II set the std.
    • Warcraft, C&C, StarCraft
  • 1993: Myst, and adventure puzzle game
  • Sim games: Sim city, SimEarth,...The Sims (2000)
  • Mods, Counterstrike, Half Life mod
internet gaming
Internet Gaming
  • Multi-User Dungeons
  • 1996: Quake, FPS
  • MMORPGS: Ultima Online, Everquest
    • Persistent worlds, large numbers of players
  • Java/Flash back to simple games
  • Decline of arcades, rise of home consoles, PCs
4 5 6 7 generations
4, 5, 6, 7 generations
  • Sega Genesis, Super NES
  • Sega Saturn, Sony Playstation, Nintendo 64
    • DDR
  • Sega Dreamcast, Playstation2, Game Cube, Xbox
    • Sims, Halo, GTA, Halo 2, GTA San Andreas, Guitar Hero
  • PSP, PS3, Xbox 360, Nintendo DS
    • Spore Demo
future
Future
  • Where is it heading?
    • Graphics
    • Physics
    • AI
    • Immersion, Realism, ...
  • Holodeck
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