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Biometrics and Authentication. Shivani Kirubanandan. Lets Define !. “ A biometric is a physiological or behavioral characteristic of a human being that can distinguish one person from another and that theoretically can be used for identification or verification of identity.”.

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Biometrics and Authentication

Shivani Kirubanandan


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Lets Define !

“A biometric is a physiological or behavioral characteristic of a human being that can distinguish one person from another and that theoretically can be used for identification or verification of identity.”


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Biometrics as Authentication

Authentication depends on

  • What you have

  • What you know

  • What you ARE !


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Why Biometrics?

  • Identity thefts

  • Something you know can be stolen

  • Predicted or hacked

  • Reliability on manual verification


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Application Categories

Biometric applications available today are categorized into 2 sectors

  • Psychological: Iris, Fingerprints, Hand, Retinal and Face recognition

  • Behavioral: Voice, Typing pattern, Signature


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Biometric Authentication Process

  • Acquisition

  • Creation of Master characteristics

  • Storage of Master characteristics

  • Acquisition(s)

  • Comparison

  • Decision


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The metrics of Biometrics

  • FTE – Failure To Enroll

  • FTA – Failure To Accept

  • FAR – False Acceptance Rates

  • FRR – False Reject Rates


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Essential parameters

  • Liveness testing

  • Tamper resistance

  • Secure communication

  • Security Threshold level

  • Fall back node


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Fingerprint recognition

  • Divides print into loops, whorls and arch

  • Calculates minutiae points (ridge endings)

  • Comparisons

  • authentication


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Fingerprint techniques

  • Optical

  • Capacitive

  • Thermal

  • Ultrasonic


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Disadvantages

  • Racial issues

  • Dirt , grime and wounds

  • Placement of finger

  • Too big a database to process

  • Can be spoofed –liveness important!


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Hand Geometry

  • Geometry of users hands

  • More reliable than fingerprinting

  • Balance in performance and usability


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Disadvantage

  • Very large scanners


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Retinal Scanning

  • Scans retina into database

  • User looks straight into retinal reader

  • Scan using low intensity light

  • Very efficient – cant be spoofed!


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Disadvantages

  • User has to look “directly”

  • FTE ratio high in this biometric

  • Acceptability concerns

    • Light exposure

    • Hygiene


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Iris Scanner

  • Scans unique pattern of iris

  • Iris is colored and visible from far

  • No touch required

  • Overcomes retinal scanner issues

  • Contact lenses an issue?


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Face recognition

  • User faces camera

  • Neutral expression required

  • Apt lighting and position

  • Algorithms for processing

  • Decision



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Issues

  • Identification across expression

  • FRR or FAR fluctuate

  • Easily spoofed

  • Tougher usability

  • High Environmental impact


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Behavioral

  • Voice

  • Signature

  • Typing pattern


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Voice Recognition

  • Speech input

    • Frequency

    • Duration

    • Cadence

  • Neutral tone

  • User friendly


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Disadvantages

  • Local acoustics

  • Background noise

  • Device quality

  • Illness , emotional behavior

  • Time consuming enrollment

  • Large processing template


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Signature Recognition

  • Signature measures (dynamic)

    • Speed

    • Velocity

    • Pressure

    • Captures images (static)

    • High user acceptance


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Issues

  • Signature variable with

    • Age, illness, emotions

    • Requires high quality hardware

    • High FRR as signatures are very dynamic


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Typing Patterns

  • User typing pattern

    • Speed

    • Press and Release Rate

    • Unique patterns are generated

    • comparisons


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Issues

  • Not very scalable

  • FRR is high

  • Can be spoofed – by simple technology (recorders)


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Usability issues in Biometrics

  • User acceptability

  • Knowledge of technology

  • Familiarity with biometric characteristic

  • Experience with device


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Usability issues…

  • Environment of use

  • Transaction criticality

  • Time consuming tasks


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Biometric solutions

  • Educate

  • Train

  • Explain Interfaces

  • Use Trainers

  • Supervised Playtime


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General issues

  • FTE posses problem

  • Biometric characteristics are not encrypted

  • Trust on input device

  • Cannot authenticate computers!

  • Privacy attack?!


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Current applications

  • Banks

  • Immigration facilities across USA

  • IDwidget – interesting research

  • Eyegaze at Stanford


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Class task

  • Sell your biometric product

    Case1

    A bank needs an appropriate authentication mechanism to allow remote user transactions. What kind of multifactor system would you sell them?


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Class task…

Case 2:

  • Suggest certain areas in which biometrics would prove disastrous

  • Note- You may suggest a particular combination of biometrics which may be disastrous to security and privacy



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