Neurofeedback
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NEUROFEEDBACK. Using Technology to Re-Shape the Mind. Also called…. EEG Biofeedback Brain training Neuro-therapy Neuro-training Attention training Peak performance training. BIOFEEDBACK. Using information about how the body is working to alter what’s going on.

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Neurofeedback

NEUROFEEDBACK

Using Technology to

Re-Shape the Mind


Also called

Also called…

EEG Biofeedback

Brain training

Neuro-therapy

Neuro-training

Attention training

Peak performance training


Biofeedback
BIOFEEDBACK

Using information about how the body is working to alter what’s going on

Biofeedback was popular in the 70’s for managing anxiety.

The client got sound tones for rewards when his GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) met the pre-set levels.



You have to have accurate feedback of course
You have to have accurate feedback, of course!


Brain training is exercising the brain a mental workout
Brain training is…exercising the brain –a mental workout.


We now know our brains are much more plastic than we used to think
We now know our brains are much more “plastic” than we used to think.

Our brains can

learn,

change,

improve,

heal…


THE BIG

IDEA:

When you have information what your brain waves are doing, your brain can use that information to change how it works.


A few brain facts
A few brain facts…

Most brain development occurs

during the 1st 2 years of life


The human brain weighs

about 12 ounces at birth,

about 35 ounces at 1 year…


By age 5 the brain is about its full size and weight about 3 pounds about 2 of adult body weight
By age 5, the brain is about its full size and weight – about 3 pounds (about 2% of adult body weight).



By age 20-25, we have 100 billion neurons…

but then we start to LOSE brain cells.


As many as 10,000 brain cells die every day after age 20.

Fortunately, those 100,000,000,000 neurons are a generous supply!


Every neuron

is connected to

other neurons –

we have an estimated 1,000,000,000,000,000 connections in our brain.


Our synaptic self
Our Synaptic Self*

  • Communication between brain cells is a bio-chemical event across tiny spaces called synapses.

Our thoughts, feelings, actions, memories & imaginations are the result of what happens in our synapses.

Synaptic Self – How Our Brains Become Who We Are by Ernest LeDoux


“I think,

therefore I am…”

Rene Descartes

(1596-1650)



What makes us who we are?

LeDoux believes it is all in the synapses that the essence of our personalities is encoded – including the basis for mental health and self-awareness – and mental illness, addictions and other brain-related problems.


PERSONALITY – is a complex interaction between nature (our “hard-wired” responses) and nurture (our unique personal experiences) – all encoded in our synapses.




We can detect this electrical signal using sensors – electrodes – placed on the scalp.


These electrodes pick up information about brain waves -- electrodes – placed on the scalp.

similar to the way stethoscopes pick up information about our hearts and lungs.


In both situations, electrodes – placed on the scalp.

SENSORS

are gathering

data.




This electrical signal is then magnified by some kind of amplifier, which is then fed through a computer.

BrainMaster

Wireless Pendant

Pocket 1-W EEG


Computers can filter out the various brain wave frequencies & provide us with this information in a usable form.


The patterns of brain wave activity varies, depending on where on the brain we are looking, and what kinds of things we are doing. In different mental states, different types of brain waves dominate.


Normal Brain where on the brain we are looking, and what kinds of things we are doing. In different mental states, different types of brain waves dominate.

  • Good balance of brain waves

  • Ability to shift easily from one brain state to another


Neurofeedback works by helping to restore a better balance of waves in various parts of the brain.


Dysfunctional Brain of waves in various parts of the brain.

  • May have

  • too much of some

  • frequencies over others –

  • or in the wrong place


Dysfunctional Brain of waves in various parts of the brain.

  • May have

  • too much of some

  • frequencies over others

  • unstable frequencies


Dysfunctional Brain of waves in various parts of the brain.

  • May have

  • too much of some

  • frequencies over others

  • unstable frequencies

  • an impaired ability to

  • shift from one

  • mental state to another.


Attention deficit disorder
Attention Deficit Disorder of waves in various parts of the brain.

The brain produces fast beta waves when the person is actively mentally involved in a language-based task …



For under-powered brains a fast-wave task like school work ends up causing the brain to start into beta—then collapse into slow drowsy waves.

Stimulant meds can stimulate the brain-– until the meds wear off.


NF works by re-training the brain to produce the beta waves on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!


Brain wave frequencies
BRAIN WAVE on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! FREQUENCIES

Each brain wave frequency can be

measured in terms of:

  • Microvolts (µV) = Amplitude/Height of the wave

  • Hertz (Hz) = Frequency/Speed of the wave per second


Frequency
FREQUENCY on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • The speed of electrical undulations, measured in cycles per second, or hertz (hz).

  • The frequency defines the brainwave bandwith:

    • Delta, Theta, Alpha = Slow

    • SMR, Beta, High Beta, Gamma = Fast


Amplitude
AMPLITUDE on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • The powerof the electrical impulse, measured in microvolts. (µV)

  • Like volume is to sound

  • Slower waves have higher amplitudes.

  • It takes the brain a lot of energy to produce the faster waves, so amplitudes tend to be lower.


Brain waves
BRAIN WAVES on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!


Frequency bandwiths
FREQUENCY BANDWITHS on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • Single frequencies organized into discreet groups

  • Each bandwidth is associated with specific characteristics

  • The amplitude and microvolt readings reflect all of the activity within the bandwidth

  • NF training is aimed at changing the amplitude of a selected frequency bandwidth


Cortical and subcortical processes
Cortical and Subcortical Processes on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

Regulation of basic life functions

Has a role in sexuality, memory, and processing emotional information

Used for thinking, talking, hearing, seeing and creating


Delta
DELTA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • 0.5-3 Hz (cycles or waves per second)

  • Sleep State

  • Regenerative State

  • Complex problem solving

  • Consciousness completely internalized

  • Transcendental states

  • Dominant wave form in infants up to 6 months old

    • 40% of the amplitude in infants

    • <5% of the amplitude in a “normal” adult


High amplitudes of delta
High Amplitudes of Delta on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • Learning Disabilities

    • “Sleepy Brains”

  • Brain Injuries

  • Eye Blinks and Eye Movement Artifact


Delta 0 3hz
DELTA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! 0-3Hz


Theta
THETA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • 4-7 Hz (cycles or waves per second)

  • Trance State

  • Intuitive, Creative

  • Internal Focus

  • Thoughts in Theta are visual/emotional


High amplitudes of theta
High Amplitudes of Theta on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • Learning Disabilities

    • Foggy Brains

    • Filtering Problems (ADHD)

    • Processing Problems (ADD)

  • Slow Reaction Time

  • Lack of Oxygen and Blood Flow

  • Depression

  • Anxiety


Theta 4 7 hz
THETA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! 4-7 Hz


Alpha
ALPHA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • 8-12 Hz

  • Alertness

  • Peacefulness

  • Readiness

  • Meditation

  • Alpha Peak Frequency

    >10 µV

    Suggests Superior Intelligence


High amplitude alpha
High Amplitude Alpha on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • High Anterior (Frontal) Alpha

    • Daydreamers

    • ADD/ADHD

    • Depression

    • Traumatic Brain Injuries

    • Marijuana Use

  • High Posterior (Rear) Alpha

    • Anxiety

    • Insomnia


Alpha 8 12 hz
Alpha on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! 8-12 Hz


Sensorimotor rhythm smr
SENSORIMOTOR RHYTHM on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! (SMR)

  • 12-15 Hz

  • Relaxed yet focused

  • Stillness: Calm Mental State

  • Reflecting-before-acting

  • Sleep Spindles (12-14 Hz)


Smr 12 15 hz
SMR on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! 12-15 Hz


BETA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • 15-22 Hz

  • Thinking

  • Focused

  • Sustained Attention

  • Problem-Solving

  • Externally Oriented


High amplitude beta 15 22 hz
High Amplitude Beta on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! 15-22 Hz

  • Left Hypo-activation = Depression

  • Right Hyper-activation = Anxiety

  • Anxiety Disorders

  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

  • Sleep Disorders

  • Bruxism


Beta 15 22 hz
BETA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! 15-22 Hz


High beta
High Beta on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • 23-35 Hz

  • Hypervigilance

  • Very fast cognitive processing


High amplitude high beta
High Amplitude High Beta on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • Epileptic Auras

  • Cortical Irritability

  • Hyper-vigilance

  • Overthinking

  • Ruminations

  • Obsessive Compulsive D/O


Gamma
GAMMA on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

  • 35-42 Hz

  • “The Binding Rhythm”

    • Important to learning by bringing together different aspects of an object into a single precept.

  • Associated with transcendent experiences

  • Found throughout the scalp rather than one discreet location


What’s on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

Neurofeedback

good for??


…probably on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! many, if not most, of all mental health diagnoses!


HOW CAN NEUROEEDBACK on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

BE GOOD FOR

SO MANY

DIFFERENT CONDITIONS??


Because the real problem is the on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! brain’s impaired ability to regulate itself.


NF leads to improved on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

brain self-regulation.


UNDER-AROUSAL on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

is the problem with disorders like depression and ADHD.


OVER-AROUSAL on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

is the problem with anxiety disorders (includes panic attacks, PTSD, agoraphobia, etc.)


INSTABILITY on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

is the problem with bipolar disorder, seizure disorders, migraines.


How long is the treatment? on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!


Typical training is 2-3 times a week, for 15-30 minutes. on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!


Usually the effects are gradual, on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

although they can sometimes be immediate, such as in relieving a migraine headache.


For many conditions, on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends!

40 sessions

will provide nearly permanent relief.


For really entrenched problems – e.g., on its own – and many people continue to improve after the training ends! Asperger’s & other autism spectrum disorders – 100 -200 sessions may be needed, and results may not be as complete.


NF can change the face of mental health treatment – and offer resolution of symptoms rather than the temporary relief of medications.



Neuroeedback positively affects

NEUROEEDBACK available” and therapy-ready.POSITIVELY AFFECTS:

ADD/ADHD

ADDICTIONS

ANXIETY

ATTACHMENT DISORDER

AUTISM


And helps those with
AND HELPS THOSE WITH: available” and therapy-ready.

  • CLOSED HEAD INJURIES

  • CONDUCT DISORDERS

  • CHRONIC PAIN

  • DEPRESSION

  • EPILEPSY


PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM: available” and therapy-ready.

  • FIBROMYALGIA

  • LEARNING DISABILITIES

  • MIGRAINES

  • OCD

  • POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS


& THOSE DEALING WITH: available” and therapy-ready.

  • SLEEP DISORDERS

  • STROKE

  • TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY




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