Clinical chemistry
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Clinical Chemistry PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Clinical Chemistry. Diane C. Jette BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. 1940 Plus Analyzer. Manual Photometer, simple to use. Range -0.2 to 2.5 absorbance units. Wavelengths: 340, 405, 505, 545,and 600 nm. Onboard Printer and RS232 interface. Preprogrammed for over 50 assays.

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Clinical Chemistry

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Clinical chemistry

Clinical Chemistry

Diane C. Jette

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc.


1940 plus analyzer

1940 Plus Analyzer

  • Manual Photometer, simple to use.

  • Range -0.2 to 2.5 absorbance units.

  • Wavelengths: 340, 405, 505, 545,and 600 nm.

  • Onboard Printer and RS232 interface.

  • Preprogrammed for over 50 assays.

  • End-point and Kinetic assay capability.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Chemistry reagent kits

Chemistry Reagent Kits

  • Wide range of tests available.

  • Most reagents are liquid stable and ready for use.

  • Simple procedures and fast turn-around.

  • 1940 Plus preprogrammed for most commonly used tests.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Indicator enzymes

Acid Phosphatase

Alkaline Phosphatase

Alanine Aminotransferase

Aspartate Aminotransferase

Amylase

Creatine Kinase

Gamma Glutamyl Transferase

Lactate dehydrogenase

Lipase

Indicator Enzymes

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Acid phosphatase acp

Acid Phosphatase (ACP)

  • Normal Range: 2.5 to 11.3 U/L

  • Increased levels ofProstate Acid Phosphatase in metastasized prostate cancer.

  • Increased levels of non-prostate Acid Phosphatase with Paget’s disease, hyperparathyroidism with skeletal involvement and in cancers which have invaded the bone.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Alkaline phosphatase alp

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

  • Normal Range: 35 to 123 U/L

  • Increased levels with liver and bone disease.

  • Moderate elevations with Hodgkin’s disease, congestive heart failure, Fanconi’s syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, intestinal disease, and intra-abdominal bacterial infections.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Alanine aminotransferase alt

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)

  • Normal Range: 4 to 36 U/L

  • Increased levels with hepatic necrosis such as cirrhosis, carcinoma, viral or toxic hepatitis, and obstructive jaundice.

  • Increased levels also seen with extensive trauma and muscle disease, circulatory failure, shock, hypoxia, myocardial infarction and hemolytic disease.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Aspartate aminotransferase ast

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)

  • Normal Range: 5 to 34 U/L

  • Increased levels with damage or disease to heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and erythrocytes tissues caused by myocardial infarction, viral hepatitis, liver necrosis, cirrhosis, and muscular dystrophy.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Amylase amy

Amylase (AMY)

  • Normal Range: 35 to 140 U/L

  • Increased Levels with acute pancreatitis, pancreatic duct obstruction, intra-abdominal disease, mumps and bacterial parotitis.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Creatine kinase ckn

Creatine Kinase (CKN)

  • Normal Range: 0 to 160 U/L

  • Increased levels with myocardial infarction 4 to 6 hours after onset of pain and peaking at 18 to 30 hours.

  • Above normal levels with muscular dystrophy, hyperthyroidism, pulmonary infarction and acute cerebrovascular disease.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Gamma glutamyl transferase ggt

Gamma GlutamylTransferase (GGT)

  • Normal Range: 8 to 54 U/L

  • Increased levels with chronic alcoholism, liver disease, myocardial infarction with secondary liver damage, brain lesions, and Dilantin therapy.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Lactate dehydrogenase ldh

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

  • Normal Range: 80 to 285 U/L

  • Increased levels with myocardial infarction 8 to 12 hours after onset of pain with peak values at 4 to 5 days.

  • Moderate increase with liver disease, untreated pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, renal disease, malignancy and muscular dystrophy.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Lipase lip

Lipase (LIP)

  • Normal Range: 0 to 62 U/L

  • Increased levels with acute pancreatitis, abdominal lesions, perforated peptic ulcer, intestinal obstruction and acute peritonitis.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Lipid derivatives

Lipid Derivatives

  • Apolipoprotein A-1

  • Apolipoprotein B

  • Cholesterol

  • High Density Cholesterol

  • Triglicerides

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Apolipoprotein a 1 apa

Apolipoprotein A-1 (APA)

  • Normal Range: 107 to 206 mg/dL

  • Decreased values may indicate risk of coronary artery disease

  • Used with High Density Chloesterol, Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B values

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Apolipoprotein b

Apolipoprotein B

  • Normal Range: 60 to 152 mg/dL

  • Decreased values may indicate risk of coronary artery disease

  • Used with High Density Chloesterol, Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein A1 values

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Cholesterol cho

Cholesterol (CHO)

  • Desired Range: < 200 mg/dL

  • Borderline High: 200 to 239 mg/dL

  • High: > 240 mg/dL

  • Indicator of liver function, intestinal absorption, risk of coronary heart disease, thyroid function and adrenal disease.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


High density cholesterol hdl

High Density Cholesterol (HDL)

  • Desired Range: > 35 mg/dL

  • Decreased levels associated with increase risk of coronary heart disease or other atherosclerotic complications.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Triglycerides tri

Triglycerides (TRI)

  • Normal Range: 44 to 148 mg/dL

  • Increased values with nephrotic syndrome, coronary heart disease, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and liver disease.

  • Decreased values with protein malnutrition, abetalipoproteinemia, hyperthyroidism and cachectic states.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Indicator metabolites

Bilirubin

Creatinine

Glucose

Hemoglobin

Total Protein

Albumin

Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

Uric Acid

Indicator Metabolites

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Albumin alb

Albumin (ALB)

  • Normal Range: 3.5 to 5.3 g/dL

  • Increased levels with dehydration.

  • Decreased levels with liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, malnutrition and protein-losing enteropathies.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Bilirubin bil

Bilirubin (BIL)

  • Normal Range: Total = 0.2 to 1.2 mg/dL

  • Normal Range: Direct = 0 to 0.3 mg/dL

  • Increased levelsof Total Bilirubin associated with liver disease and hemolytic disorders.

  • Increased levels of conjugated Bilirubin (Direct Bilirubin) associated with biliary obstruction and hepatocellular disease.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Creatinine crt

Creatinine (CRT)

  • Normal Range: 0.4 to 1.4 mg/dL

  • Increased levels with substantially impaired renal function.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Glucose glu

Glucose (GLU)

  • Normal Range: 70 to 107 mg/dL

  • Increased levels with diabetes mellitus, hyperactive pituitary or adrenal glands.

  • Decreased levels with insulin overdosage, insulin secreting tumors, myxedema, hypopituitarism, hypoadrenalism and abnormal glucose absorption.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Hemoglobin hem

Hemoglobin (HEM)

  • Normal Range: 11 to 18 g/dL

  • Increased values with polycythemia or dehydration.

  • Decreased values with anemia.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Total protein

Total Protein

  • Normal Range: 6.2 to 8.5 g/dL

  • Increased levels with dehydration or increase in one or more globular fractions.

  • Decreased values associated with low Albumin levels.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Urea nitrogen bun

Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

  • Normal Range: 7 to 18 mg/dL

  • Increased levels with renal disease, dehydration, diabetic coma, hypoadrenal crisis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and circulatory collapse.

  • Decreased levels with severe liver disease.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Electrolytes

Ammonia

Calcium

Carbon Dioxide

Chloride

Iron

Magnesium

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sodium

Electrolytes

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Ammonia amn

Ammonia (AMN)

  • Normal Range: 11 to 35 mol/L

  • Increased levels with Reye’s syndrome, other forms of liver cell damage and impending hepatic coma.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Calcium cal

Calcium (CAL)

  • Normal Range: 8.5 to 10.0 mg/dL

  • Increased levels with hyperparathyroidism, metastatic bone lesions and hypervitaminosis D.

  • Decreased levels with hypoparathyroidism, rickets, steatorrhea, nephritis and calcium-losing syndrome.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Carbon dioxide car

Carbon Dioxide (CAR)

  • Normal Range: 23 to 34 mmol/L

  • Detection of acid-base imbalance.

  • Increased levels with metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis.

  • Decreased levels with metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Chloride chl

Chloride (CHL)

  • Normal Range: 98 to 106 mEq/L

  • Decreased levels with gastrointestinal or salt-losing nephritis, Addison’s disease and metabolic acidosis.

  • Increased levels with dehydration, nephritis, renal obstruction, congestive heart failure and Cushing’s syndrome.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Iron iro

Iron (IRO)

  • Normal Range: 60 to 150 g/dL

  • Increased levels with infectious hepatitis, hemochromatosis, hemosiderosis or terminal Hodgkin’s disease.

  • Decreased levels with anemia, chronic infection or cancer.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Magnesium mag

Magnesium (MAG)

  • Normal Range: 1.3 to 2.5 mEq/L

  • Increased levels with uremia

  • Decreased levels with malabsorption, treatment of diabetic coma, postoperative patients receiving intravenous fluids, chronic and acute alcoholism and delirium tremens, chronic renal disease, congestive heart failure, pancreatitis, lupus erythematosus and hyperthyroidism.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Phosphorus pho

Phosphorus (PHO)

  • Normal Range: 2.4 to 4.8 mg/dL

  • Increased levels with chronic nephritis, hypoparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D.

  • Decreased levels with rickets, osteromalacia, hyperparathyroidism and during treatment of diabetic coma.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Potassium

Potassium

  • Normal Range: 3.4 to 5.3 mEq/L

  • Elevated levels (hyperkalemia) with renal failure, dehydration, shock and adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease)

  • Decreasing levels with malnutrition, negative nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal fluid losses and hyper-activity of the adrenal cortex (Cushing’s Syndrome)

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Sodium sod

Sodium (SOD)

  • Normal Range: 135 to 155 mEq/L

  • Increased levels with excess water loss, hypergluco or mineralocorticoidism and inadequate water intake.

  • Decreased levels with increased water intake, and dilutional hyponatremia due to cardiac failure, liver failure, nephrotic syndrome, or malnutrition.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


Uric acid uri

Uric Acid (URI)

  • Normal Range: 2.5 to 7.7 mg/dL

  • Increasing levels with gout, leukemia. Polycythermia, familial idiopathic hyperuricemia, and conditions associated with decreased renal function.

BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003


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