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TRANSFORMATION & TECHNOLOGY: A CANADIAN MARITIME SECURITY PERSPECTIVE A Conference hosted by the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies < www.cfps.dal.ca > Dalhousie University, 15-17 June 2006

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TRANSFORMATION & TECHNOLOGY: A CANADIAN MARITIME SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

A Conference hosted by the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies <www.cfps.dal.ca> Dalhousie University, 15-17 June 2006

“THE 1,000-SHIP NAVY” INITIATIVE FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVAL COOPERATION: LESSONS LEARNED FROM US-CANADA NAVAL COOPERATION

Dr. Stanley Weeks

Senior Scientist, Science Applications International Corporation


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“THE 1,000-SHIP NAVY” INITIATIVE FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVAL COOPERATION: Lessons Learned from US-Canada Naval Cooperation

2006 Maritime Security Conference, CFPS, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S.

15-17 June 2006

Dr Stanley B. Weeks

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)

McLean, Virginia, USA


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AGENDA COOPERATION: Lessons Learned from US-Canada Naval Cooperation

  • Origins of the 1,000-Ship Navy Initiative

  • Ten Principles of the Initiative

  • A Possible Framework for Implementation

  • Lessons Learned from US-Canada Naval Cooperation

  • Conclusion


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ORIGINS OF THE “1,000-SHIP NAVY” INITIATIVE COOPERATION: Lessons Learned from US-Canada Naval Cooperation

  • September 2005: President’s National Strategy for Maritime Security

    • Vision of coordinated effort to safeguard US global maritime interests

    • “Security of the maritime domain is a global issue. The United States cannot safeguard the maritime domain on its own. We must forge cooperative partnerships and alliances with other nations and with private stakeholders around the world.”


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ORIGINS OF THE “1,000-SHIP NAVY” INITIATIVE (Cont.) COOPERATION: Lessons Learned from US-Canada Naval Cooperation

  • New CNO Admiral Mullen

    • True commitment to international maritime cooperation from prior experience in NATO/Mediterranean

    • Admiral Mullen speech to September 2005 International Seapower Symposium

      • Theme: “Establishing a Global Network of Maritime Nations for a free and secure maritime domain”

      • New vision must include increased interoperability and closer maritime cooperation between the navies and coast guards of the world

      • ‘Our level of cooperation and coordination must intensify”

      • “No nation today can go it alone, especially in the maritime domain.”


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“THE 1,000-SHIP NAVY GLOBAL MARITIME NETWORK” COOPERATION: Lessons Learned from US-Canada Naval Cooperation

  • Article in Nov 2005 USNI Proceedings by N5/N5SP VADM Morgan/RADM Martoglio

  • Identified emerging security environment of increased globalization and interdependence, making “policing and protecting the maritime commons” a high priority for all nations

  • Highlighted trend toward more “international cooperation in economic and security issues’

  • Most nations challenged by “multi-faceted transnational threats” including maritime piracy, organized crime, smuggling, drug trafficking, illegal immigration, weapons (including WMD) proliferation, and terrorism

  • Thus need to harness “the powers of the international community’s maritime organizations to confront these multi-national transnational threats”


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“THE 1,000-SHIP NAVY GLOBAL MARITIME NETWORK” (Cont.) COOPERATION: Lessons Learned from US-Canada Naval Cooperation

  • Imperatives for Maritime Security

    • Increasingly an international problem that requires an international solution

    • “No single nation has the sovereignty, capacity, and control …requires close cooperation between like-minded nations…”

    • “That level of cooperation can also pay dividends in other circumstances” (e.g., Tsunami relief)

  • Building the 1,000-ship Navy

    • “Policing the maritime commons requires…a combination of national, international, and private industry cooperation to provide the platforms, people, and protocols necessary to secure the seas against the transnational threat.”

    • Effectively, requires voluntary development of a network to increase sensors to monitor security in maritime domain and to increase the number of responders

    • Emerging regional maritime security networks are a model

    • No “one size fits all”—Every nation can contribute in some way to security in the maritime domain

    • Navies are “the first and predominant contributors to the 1,000-ship Navy,” “Enabling the peace”

    • International shipping industry important to vastly increase sensors in maritime domain


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“THE 1,000-SHIP NAVY GLOBAL MARITIME NETWORK” (Cont.) Employing the 1,000-ship Navy

  • Overall Goal—increase security of maritime domain for safe use of maritime commons by all nations

    • Increase maritime domain awareness

    • Posture assets to rapidly respond to crises/emergencies

  • More capable nations can export:

    • Maritime security through international operations (e.g., CTF 150, NATO Active Endeavor)

    • Security Assistance

    • But “overcoming resistance based on sovereignty concerns is often a delicate issue,” influence of allies, peers, neighboring nations important

  • US and USN “do not have capability or desire to be the sole exporter of security or security assistance in the maritime domain”

    • USN is in unique position to facilitate voluntary enlistment of nations as members of global partnership

    • But requires strong/sustained support from other maritime nations


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TEN PRINCIPLES OF THE GLOBAL MARITIME NETWORK (CNO ADM Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • (1) National sovereignty comes first and foremost and is always respected

  • (2) Nations, navies, and maritime forces participate where they have common interests (e.g., common transnational maritime threats)

  • (3) Focus of the global network is security in the maritime domain

  • (4) Foundation of the global network is individual nations’ capabilities (capacity to contribute)

  • (5) International navies will be cornerstones in global network, but network also includes: coast guards, maritime forces, port operators, commercial shippers, and local law enforcement all working together


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TEN PRINCIPLES OF THE GLOBAL MARITIME NETWORK (CNO ADM Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • (6) Every nation, regardless of size or capacity, can do something to contribute to maritime security. Those nations or navies that can assist others should do so.

  • (7) Nations or navies that need assistance should ask for it

  • (8) Regional nations must develop regional maritime networks

  • (9) To be effective, a global network must widely share information (to the greatest extent possible, unclassified)

  • (10) Timing: A long-term effort, but must start now by strengthening:

    • Individual nations’ capacity to provide for their own maritime security

    • The operational side of regional organizations

    • The relationships between regional organizations to build the global network


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“The 1,000-SHIP NAVY” CONCEPT Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • A broader vision of seapower (“Comprehensive Security”)

  • Inclusive

  • Flexible

  • Idealistic (“No nation can do everything, but all nations can do something.”)


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IMPLEMENTING THE INITIATIVE Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • Navy Strategic Plan tasks Navy Strategy staff (N5SP) with drafting a Global Maritime Security Cooperation Strategy

  • (MY VIEW) N5SP staff must provide focal point for coordinating and implementing 1,000-ship Navy initiative, including:

    • Be clearinghouse/coordinator/integrator at global level for regional USN Component Commanders’ theater maritime cooperation plans

    • Provide strategic templates for assistance (e.g., Navy Transformation Plans) for emerging coastal maritime forces

    • Coordinate Security Assistance Programs with USN International Programs Office

    • Coordinate Training assets with US Coast Guard International Programs office

    • Coordinate Maintenance Assistance planning with US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)


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POSSIBLE FRAMEWORKS FOR IMPLEMENTATION Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • Categorize efforts:

    • Blue Water navies (Global Partners)

    • Green Water navies (Regional Partners)

    • Coastal navies (Sub-Regional Partners)

  • Establish a “Building Block” approach to assess and leverage existing regional maritime cooperation initiatives into the broader global network context

  • Identify how US Navy can best engage and lead integration of interagency and private maritime sector partners

  • Identify technology availability and requirements for the various categories of navies to participate in the network


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CANADIAN NAVY COMMENTS ON THE 1,000-SHIP NAVY Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)VADM Robertson, USNI Proceedings, March 2006)

  • “General concept fits well with world views of the Canadian government”

  • Canadian Navy experience/leadership with USN and coalitions

  • Canadian success at coalition command due to interoperability and “our national predisposition to multilateral cooperation”

  • Challenges:

    • C2 arrangements will need to limit security restrictions

    • Must manage competition between coalitions of the willing and formal alliance structures

    • Must avoid public impression that high end of conflict can be left to only a few nations (need combat-capable multi-purpose force)


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LESSONS FROM US-CANADA NAVAL COOPERATION (I) Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • Value of what we share: Language, values, geography, history

  • Value of longstanding maritime cooperation

  • Value of routine peacetime training and exercises together

  • Value of wartime Alliance operations—WWII. Korea, Cold War, 1991 Gulf War, Operation Apollo 2001-2003


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LESSONS FROM US-CANADA NAVAL COOPERATION (II) Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • Institutional Defense Planning linkages (from 1940 Permanent Joint Board on Defense to 1946 Military Cooperation Committee to 1958 NORAD to the Bi-national Planning Group and expanded NORAD maritime role of today

  • Interoperability

    • A national defense goal for Canada

    • Interoperability routinely exercised and refined in bilateral and NATO context


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LESSONS FROM US-CANADA NAVAL COOPERATION (III) Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • Canada’s very special relationship with the USN and interoperability led to:

    • Key international maritime command roles in 1991 and 2002-2004

    • Full integration of Canadian ships in deployed Carrier Strike Groups (and, soon, Expeditionary Strike Groups)

  • But...”Don’t look back, they may be gaining on you”

    • Other nations now imitating Canada in formerly unique Canadian international command roles and even Carrier Strike Group ship integration

    • Suggests importance of Canada keeping a modernized and unreduced maritime force (in platforms and capabilities)


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THE IMPORTANCE OF TRUST AND RELIABILITY Mullen Speech, London, Dec 2005)

  • “It is not so much our friends’ help that helps us, as the confidence of their help.” Epicurus

  • “The long-held Canadian desire to be within the American defence perimeter but not the American policy perimeter is historic and traditional. It…shapes the political culture of our foreign and defence relations…” Hugh Segal


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