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The Yamato Period

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The Yamato Period

Sixth Century CE entered the Light of HistoryHegemony over a number of TerritoriesKyushu to Emishi Land in Eastern ProvinceThe ClansUji or Blood RelativesUji No KamiHead both Political and SacerdotalCalled upon to Perform Certain Sacred Rites to the Tutelary Deity of the Uji (Uji Gami)Clan Social Cohesions and Continuity

Clans¼ were either Chinese or KoreanImmigrationKnowledgeHigh Social StatusProvincial Uji ChieftainsProvincial Commander (Kuni-No-Miyatsuko)Court Took Over Uji Lands (Miyake)Prominent Chieftains (Kabane)Participate in Affairs at CourtOmi and Muraji Chieftains and Imperial CourtOccupational Groups (Be)Largest Be (Farmers)Fishermen, Potters, WeaversEach Uji No Kami controlled the Be in his TerritoryBelow the Uji and Be were Slaves (Yatsuko)Membership in clan and guild were hereditary

Imperial Occupational GroupsMononobe (Army)Nakatomi (Attendants)Imbe (Rituals)

Unification ForcesUnification of Sui and Tang (Model)KoreaInfluenced Historic JapanWriting (Early 5th)By 8th measure of Man’s WorthConfucianism and BuddhismVital Ingredient of CivilizationAchievements of China532 Korean King Sent Scriptures and Statuary

Two Early PeriodsPreparatory Stage (552-645)Actual Reform (645-710)Land Reform of 645Fixed Capital at Nara in 710

First Period (552-645)Issue of Acceptance of BuddhismMuraji Family of Nakatomi and Muraji Family of Monobe OpposedNakatomi Descent from Kami who attended NinigiImbe performed the Sacred Shinto RitualsMononobe Were Miliary and wanted WarKorean and Buddhism no WarGreat Omi Family Soga supported Buddhism

Emperor Kimmei (531)Soga came to PowerTaxation and FinanceEstablished National TreasuryFiscal ResponsibilityTrade not WarEmperor Kimmei Gave Permission for ChapelPestilence|Disfavor of Native KamiNakatomi and Mononobe Destroyed the ChapelImage into the Canal585 another ChapelPestilenceSoga Chapel DestroyedPestilence did not Cease

Soga PowerGreat provincial Uji (Outside Uji)Recent Comers to CourtImperial House Married Women from the Omi FamiliesSoga Blood and Imperial LineSoga Umako”s Nephew Emperor SushunSushun Not Good EmperorMurderedNiece Suiko (592-628)First Historical Empress

Important Imperial PrincesPrince Shotoku TaishiCrown Prince and RegentMother was a SogaMaster of Chinese StudiesArdent Champions of Chinese CultureGreat Intellectual of his AgeText on BuddhismFirst National HistoryHoryuji (Temple)Outside NaraArchitectural Masterpiece

Horyuji Temple AreaHoryuji Temple’s Middle Gate, Pagoda, and Main Hall14 CenturiesOldest Wooden StructureShotoku’s StudyEight Sided VerandaChuguji NunneryNara ArtNyoirin Kannon (Camphor Wood Statue)Many Murals Destroyed by fire in 1950

Twelve Cap Ranking System (603 CE) Ministers separated by HeadpiecesColor Based on Merit rather than BirthSeventeen Article ConstitutionNot a ConstitutionReverence to the Buddha, the Law, and Religious CommunityHan Confucianism—Virtuous OfficialsFrugal, Industrious, Prompt, Impartial, ObedientSend Students to China600, 607, 608, 614Ono No Imoko first Overseas StudentTwo DecadesSome important in Taika Reform

Prince Shotoku’s Message“From the Son of Heaven of the Land of the Rising sun to the Son of Heave of the Land of the Setting Sun”China considered Japanese as Impertinent Barbarians in the Eastern SeaJapan did not accept Subordinate Treatment630 CE Mission to Tang China200 Years, 12 Missions, 100-600 PeopleJapan sent 10,000 troops to Korea to Recover PositionDefeated Silla in 600 CEPay TributeNon-paymentPrepare a Second InvasionCommander DiesShotoku’s Brother

SogaPrince Shotoku (d. 622)Soga Umako (d. 625)Strengthen the Imperial Position of JapanPuppet Emperors640’s Imperial FamilySon Emishi and Grandson IrukaHistory (Nihon Shoki) Depict the two as Bad RulersCrushed the son of ShotokuNonentitiesHuge MausoleumsPalacesChildren called Princes

The Opposition to the SogaRemove the SogaCentralize the GovernmentReduce the Power of the Provincial UjiNakatomi Kamatari—Nakatomi ClanPrince Naka No Oye—Son of EmpressGroup of Men who had Traveled to ChinaStudied the Institutions of the TangWorried about Tang Expansion645 Prince Naka and Cohorts staged a Coup

645 Prince Naka and Cohorts Killed Soga IrukaImperial Palace before Empress and AttendantsNext Day, Emishi set fire to his MansionSix Decades of Soga came an End

ReformersSponsorship of Chinese Form of GovernmentTassels on CapsInformation in the Nihon ShokiLand ReformDestroy the Landholding and Social Organization Patterns of the UjiGreat Uji virtually Autonomous“Private Lands and Private People Become Public Lands and Public People”Right of Public DomainPeople Direct Subjects of the ThroneEqual FieldsTriple Tax

Equal FieldsOne Plot per Adult MaleLesser Plots for OthersWork Plots During Life TimeConcession Made to Former Ruling Great UjiLarger Holding than the average PeasantInspection Less and LessToo Early for such a System

Triple Tax1. Harvest Tax2. Products Tax (Silk, Cotton, etc.)3. Corvee Labor (Military)

Government OrganizationAbolish Kabane TitlesOut Great Omi and Great MurajiCreation of Three MinistersMinisters of the Right, Left, and CenterNakatomi Kamatari became Mininster of the CenterNakatomi Kmatari became Fujiwara KamatariUsed name of NihonCame to the West through Chinese “Jih-Pen”Source of the SunLand of the Rising Sun

Nihon DividedProvinces, Districts, Townships Townships about 50 HouseholdsProvinces headed by GovernorFour Year Term—sent from CourtDistricts headed by GovernorLocals on a Hereditary BasisGovernors from Lesser Uji ChieftainsSupport for Government Reforms

Divisions of SocietyGood PeoplePeasants, Workers, Craftsmen, ArtisansRuling PeopleAristocracyMean People10% of populationSlave-like Personal Servants

Prince NakaUncle and Mother Crown PrinceSeven Years after Mother’s Death (661 CE)668 Became Emperor

About the TitlePrince Shotoku replaced the Title of O-KimiChinese style of TennoTenno or Heavenly SovereignO-Kimi, O-MurajiUpgrade the Imperial PrstigePrince Naka became Emperor TenjiOmens that had received Heaven’s MandateEmperor Tenji died in 671Problem with Son and BortherBrother became Emperor Temmu in 672 CE

Emperor Temmu PowerfulProtection of BuddhismConsolidated ReformsGreater Uji supported Son and really LostCompiled Important Legal CodesEmperor Tenji and Emperor TemmuTaiho Code of 701 CEFundamental Law of the Court for nextEleven and Half CenturiesRegularization and Bureaucratization of Central Governement

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