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The Ocean Depths! (1). Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!. Areas of the Deep Sea. How Surface Water Masses Reach The Bottom. near Greenland. “Thermohaline Circulation”. Near the Antarctic. The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt. The Mesopelagic. The Twilight Zone.

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The ocean depths 1

The Ocean Depths! (1)

Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!



How Surface Water Masses Reach The Bottom

near Greenland

“Thermohaline Circulation”

Near the Antarctic



The Mesopelagic

The Twilight Zone


Deep Sea Life Is Closely Correlated With Plankton Abundance And Light Intensity

Thermocline

Bottom of Mesopelagic Zone – No Light exists here



Food Sources in the Deep Sea And Light Intensity


A few mesopelagic critters
A Few Mesopelagic Critters … And Light Intensity


Mesopelagic Crustaceans And Light Intensity

Opossum shrimp

krill

true (decapod) shrimp



Mesopelagic Squid Showing Photophores Length

Photophores, or light organs, are characteristic of many animals in the mesopelagic – they are active in bioluminescence



Typical Mesopelagic Fishes Length

hatchetfish

pacific viperfish

lanternfish

dragonfish

barracudina

longnose

lancetfish


Adaptations of mesopelagic fishes
Adaptations of Mesopelagic Fishes Length

  • Small body size – limited food supply

  • Large mouths hinged to disarticulate

  • Generalized omnivores with abundant, long, sharp teeth

  • Feeding habits – migrators and non-migrators

  • Sense organs – tubular eyes with 2 retinas; well-developed lateral lines


Adaptations con t coloration and body shape
Adaptations Con’t.: Coloration and Body Shape Length

  • Countershading

  • Transparency – especially in upper areas of mesopelagic

  • Lateral compression of the body

  • Photophores and Bioluminescence




An Adaptation for Large Prey – Hinged Jaws! Length

Viper fish

Rattrap fish

Opportunists of the Deep


Convergent Evolution of Tubular Eyes in Mesopelagic Organisms

Krill – bilobed eye

Midwater fish - Scopelarchus

Deep-Sea Octopus



Having Photophores Is Adaptive ! Organisms

Squid Without Photophores

Squid With Photophores



The ocean depths 2

The Ocean Depths! (2) Organisms

Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!


Below the mesopelagic the world of perpetual darkness
Below the Mesopelagic – OrganismsThe World of Perpetual Darkness

  • Below this zone which stops at about 1,000 meters is the:

  • Bathypelagic - 1,000 to 4,000 meters

  • Abyssopelagic - 4,000 to 6,000 meters

  • Hadopelagic – below 6,000 meters and into the trenches


The Bathypelagic – Home Of Perpetual Darkness Organisms

Mesopelagic

Bathypelagic

(upper reaches)




Some Deep-Sea Fishes Organisms

Anglerfish

Note very small, parasitic male

Swallower

Gulper


The problem of finding a mate
The Problem Of Finding A Mate … Organisms

  • Produce light ! (bioluminescence)

  • Produce an odor ! (pheromones)

  • Be a parasite and attach to the other sex !

  • Be a hermaphrodite and say “to heck with it” !






Sampling methods for the mesopelagic and beyond
Sampling Methods for the Mesopelagic and Beyond … Organisms

A Remote-Controlled Midwater Trawl



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