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The Ocean Depths! (1). Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!. Areas of the Deep Sea. How Surface Water Masses Reach The Bottom. near Greenland. “Thermohaline Circulation”. Near the Antarctic. The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt. The Mesopelagic. The Twilight Zone.

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the ocean depths 1

The Ocean Depths! (1)

Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!

slide3

How Surface Water Masses Reach The Bottom

near Greenland

“Thermohaline Circulation”

Near the Antarctic

slide5

The Mesopelagic

The Twilight Zone

slide6

Deep Sea Life Is Closely Correlated With Plankton Abundance And Light Intensity

Thermocline

Bottom of Mesopelagic Zone – No Light exists here

slide10

Mesopelagic Crustaceans

Opossum shrimp

krill

true (decapod) shrimp

slide12

Mesopelagic Squid Showing Photophores

Photophores, or light organs, are characteristic of many animals in the mesopelagic – they are active in bioluminescence

slide14

Typical Mesopelagic Fishes

hatchetfish

pacific viperfish

lanternfish

dragonfish

barracudina

longnose

lancetfish

adaptations of mesopelagic fishes
Adaptations of Mesopelagic Fishes
  • Small body size – limited food supply
  • Large mouths hinged to disarticulate
  • Generalized omnivores with abundant, long, sharp teeth
  • Feeding habits – migrators and non-migrators
  • Sense organs – tubular eyes with 2 retinas; well-developed lateral lines
adaptations con t coloration and body shape
Adaptations Con’t.: Coloration and Body Shape
  • Countershading
  • Transparency – especially in upper areas of mesopelagic
  • Lateral compression of the body
  • Photophores and Bioluminescence
slide19

An Adaptation for Large Prey – Hinged Jaws!

Viper fish

Rattrap fish

Opportunists of the Deep

slide20

Convergent Evolution of Tubular Eyes in Mesopelagic Organisms

Krill – bilobed eye

Midwater fish - Scopelarchus

Deep-Sea Octopus

slide22

Having Photophores Is Adaptive !

Squid Without Photophores

Squid With Photophores

the ocean depths 2

The Ocean Depths! (2)

Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!

below the mesopelagic the world of perpetual darkness
Below the Mesopelagic – The World of Perpetual Darkness
  • Below this zone which stops at about 1,000 meters is the:
  • Bathypelagic - 1,000 to 4,000 meters
  • Abyssopelagic - 4,000 to 6,000 meters
  • Hadopelagic – below 6,000 meters and into the trenches
slide26

The Bathypelagic – Home Of Perpetual Darkness

Mesopelagic

Bathypelagic

(upper reaches)

slide29

Some Deep-Sea Fishes

Anglerfish

Note very small, parasitic male

Swallower

Gulper

the problem of finding a mate
The Problem Of Finding A Mate …
  • Produce light ! (bioluminescence)
  • Produce an odor ! (pheromones)
  • Be a parasite and attach to the other sex !
  • Be a hermaphrodite and say “to heck with it” !
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