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CHAPTER 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Human Nervous System Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Human Nervous System The Structure of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS)

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CHAPTER 3

Biological Foundations of Behavior

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Human Nervous System

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Human Nervous System

  • The Structure of the Nervous System

    • Central nervous system (CNS)

    • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

    • Afferent pathways

    • Efferent pathways

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Human Nervous System

  • The Structure of the Nervous System

    • Somatic nervous system

    • Autonomic nervous system

      • Sympathetic nervous system (SNS)

      • Parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS)

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Structure of Individual Neurons

Link

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.



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An-

The Process of Neural Transmission

  • Transmission within Cells (Action Potential)

    • The Neuron at rest (resting potential)

  • Depolarized (excited potential) when inside becomes less negative relative to resting potential.

  • Hyperpolarized (inhibited potential) when inside becomes more negative relative to resting potential.

  • Accumulation of these = Graded Potential


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The Process of Neural Transmission

  • Transmission within Cells (Action Potential)

    • The Neuron at rest

    • Reception of Input

    • Threshold for Transmission

    • Action Potentials vs. Graded Potentials

Link

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.



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The Process of Neural Transmission

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Process of Neural Transmission

  • Transmission between Cells (Synaptic Transmission)

    • Anatomy of a Synapse

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Process of Neural Transmission

  • Transmission between Cells (Synaptic Transmission)

    • Synaptic Transmission

Link

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers

  • Monoamines

    • Dopamine

    • Norepinephrine

    • Serotonin

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers

  • Neuromuscular and Inhibitory Transmitters

    • Acetylcholine

    • GABA

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers

  • Pseudo Transmitters

    • Endorphins

    • Opiates

    • “Runner’s high”

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Brain: Structure and Function

  • Major Regions of the Human Brain

    • The Hindbrain

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Brain: Structure and Function

  • Major Regions of the Human Brain

    • The Midbrain

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Brain: Structure and Function

  • Major Regions of the Human Brain

    • The Forebrain

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Brain: Structure and Function

  • The Limbic System

    • Thalamus

    • Hypothalamus

    • Pituitary Gland

    • Hippocampus

    • Amygdala

    • Septum

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Cerebral Hemispheres

  • The Occipital Lobe

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Cerebral Hemispheres

  • The Parietal Lobe

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Cerebral Hemispheres

  • The Temporal Lobe

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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The Cerebral Hemispheres

  • The Frontal Lobe

Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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