STUDY OF SOIL EROSION, SEDIMENTATION AND ASSOCIATED PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION
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STUDY OF SOIL EROSION, SEDIMENTATION AND ASSOCIATED PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION Manzoor Ahmad Choudhry Head Radioisotope Hydrology Group Radiation and Isotope Application Division Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology P. O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan Phone: 92 51 9290261

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STUDY OF SOIL EROSION, SEDIMENTATION AND ASSOCIATED PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION

Manzoor Ahmad Choudhry

Head Radioisotope Hydrology Group

Radiation and Isotope Application Division

Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology

P. O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan

Phone: 92 51 9290261

Fax: 92 51-9290275

Email: manzoor@pinstech.org.pk


Map of Pakistan and Drainage System

Total Population: 130 M (agribusiness 60%)

Total area: 79.61 M.ha.

Cultivated: 23.0 M.ha. (25% rain-fed)

Climate: arid and semiarid

Annual Rainfall: 100 to 2000 mm

(Extreme floods in monsoon)

Temperature: Below freezing to 52oC

 soil erosion is the most severe

problem in rain-fed areas


  • AREA AFFECTED BY WATER EROSION

    • PROVINCE

  • DEG. OF EROSIONPUNJAB SINDH NWFPBALO.N.A.PAKISTAN(Thousand Hectares)

  • Slight (Sheet & rill)61.2156.3180.5 398.0

  • Moderate(Sheet & rill)896.8853.8 1805.0 25.8 3581.4

  • Severe(Rill, gully &/or 588.1 58.9 1765.1 829.6 504.2 3745.9 streambank)

  • Very severe(gully, 357.91517.01571.6 3446.5

  • pipe & pinnacle)

  • Total 1904.0 58.9 4292.2 2634.6 2282.1 11171.8


  • AREA AFFECTED BY WATER EROSION

    • PROVINCE

  • DEG. OF EROSIONPUNJABSINDHNWFPBALO.PAKISTAN(Thousand Hectares)

  • Slight 2251.4 295.0 13.1 36.0 2595.5

  • Moderate 279.1 70.2 3.8 143.6 496.7

  • Severe to Very 1274.0 273.8 19.6 100.9 1668.3 Severe

  • Total3804.5 639.0 36.5 280.5 4760.5


  • POTHWAR AREA

  • Total Area = 18 .6 M.Acres (Cultivated: 7.9 M.Acre, Livestock Ranges: 9.9 M. Acre and 0.8 million acre is forest)

  • Undulating topography

  • Mostly loess parent material

  • Rainfall: 375 to 1750 mm (Concentrated in monsoon)

  • Rainfall in Study Area: 850 mm

  • Highly susceptible to water erosion

  • Types of erosion: sheet, rill, gully and bank erosion.

  • slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion

  • of cultivated land is most common.

  • Small Dams:43

  • Mini dams: 550 (10 Acres )

  • Ponds:> 1000 (7.5 Acres)


GENERAL PROBLEMS

Aggravated productivity decline due to soil erosion

Soil loss (3.0 - 4.5 t/ha/yr from cultivared fields)

 Siltation of conveyance systems and reservoirs

 Environmental pollution(water pollution sue to agrochemicals


  • OBJECTIVES

  • General objectives:

  • To develop technical know-how and establish facilities for application of nuclear techniques measuring soil erosion and sedimentation,

  • To promote of these techniques in the end-user departments and to popularize soil and agro-chemical management practices suitable for rain-fed areas among the farmers through extension department.

    • The specific objectives

  • To assess soil erosion and redistribution rates in the fields

  • To investigate soil fertility degradation under differently eroded fields.

  • To evaluate different soil and crop management practices for erosion control

  • To investigate pesticides residue, transport and relationship with soil loss.

  • To promote and popularize the application of nuclear techniques for measuring soil erosion and sedimentation.


Partner Institutes

  • Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology,

    Radiation and Isotope Application Division (RIAD),

    P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan.

  • National Agricultural Research Center (NARC),

    Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC),

    Islamabad, Pakistan.

  • Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB),

    Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.


  • FACILITIES

  • Field infrastructure

  • Flumes for measurement of surface runoff

  • Field staff for collection of samples

  • Facilities for 137Cs

  • High Purity Germanium Detection System with complete

    gamma library for low level counting (EURISYS

    MEASURES, France): Rel. eff. ~ 52%, Res. ~ 2 keV.

  • Two High Purity Germanium Detection System in the

    sister division (NPD) (EURISYS MEASURES: Rel. eff. ~

    40%, Res. ~ 2 keV. And Canberra)

  • Scraper frame and manual corers.

  • Ring mill


    • Sieving set with shaker

    • Mackereth corer for sediment core samples from

      reservoirs

    • Special boat with winch for Mackereth corer.

    • Motorized soil corer with all accessories Augers for soil core samples, Ovens, Grinder, Weighing

      balances

    • Soil- 6

    • Surveying instrument

    • Facilities for application of environmental isotopes:

    • Three Liquid Scintillation Spectrometers

    • Four Mass Spectrophotometers

    • Sample preparation system for isotopes like 2H, 18O, 13C,

      34S, 15N, 3H, 14C etc. (Locally fabricated)


    • Facilities for applications of artificial radiotracer:

    • Nuclear research reactors (PARR-I) and radioisotope

      production facilities

    • A number of scintillation detectors (up to 3” x3”) / GM

      tubes, counting sets, X-Y plotters,

    • MINEKIN sets for radiation detection in the field

    • Facilities for chemical analysis:

    • Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (Hitachi)

    • Flame Photometer

    • Gas Analyzer

    • Microprocessor Ion Selective Electrodes

    • UV/ Visible Spectrophotometer

    • XRD, XRF (sister division, NPD)

    • Facilities for pesticide analysis (available at NIAB)

    • HPLC, GC, ELISA


    STAFF TRAINING

    • Participation in Training Workshops:

      (1) One participant in Cs-137 Techniques

      (2) One participant in Pesticide Contamination

    • Scientific visits:

      (1) Mr. Waheed Akram, two weeks from 27 October to

      8 November 2003

      (2) Mr. Jamil A. Tariq, two weeks from 23 February to

      5 March 2004 (China & Australia)


    FUTURE INPUTS FROM IAEA

    a. Training fellowship (2 MM)

    b. Equipment and consumables

    c. Sub-contract:

    d. Expert Mission:


    FIELD STUDIES

    (a) A test of hypothetical hill-slope-streambed soil

    redistribution model using 137Cs technique

    (b) Soil redistribution and pesticide

    contamination in cultivated fields at Fateh

    Jang

    (c) Soil erosion from Satameel Catchment-2

    (Rawal watershed)

    (d)  Soil erosion and sedimentation in Sandaymar

    catchment and dam reservoir


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