Ocn331 mare360
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 44

OCN331 / MARE360 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

OCN331 / MARE360. Goals: Qualitative & Quantitative Reading Materials—On-Line Lectures & Discussions Rec read chapters & bring PwrPt to class UH-H Visits Examinations/Grades. Whales Norwegian herring Japanese sardine Peruvian anchovy Can. N. Atlantic cod. Technology Capital Investment

Download Presentation

OCN331 / MARE360

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ocn331 mare360

OCN331 / MARE360

  • Goals: Qualitative & Quantitative

  • Reading Materials—On-Line

  • Lectures & Discussions

    • Rec read chapters & bring PwrPt to class

  • UH-H Visits

  • Examinations/Grades


Hugo grotius mare liberum 1609

Whales

Norwegian herring

Japanese sardine

Peruvian anchovy

Can. N. Atlantic cod

Technology

Capital Investment

Fisheries Information

Politics

Social Issues

Tragedy of commons

Population

Hugo GrotiusMare Liberum1609


Total global fisheries harvest 160mt

YearCAPAQ

200294.552

200391.855.2

20049660

200595.563.3

200693.166.7

Capture Fisheries are constant at ~90-95Mt

Aquaculture is steadily increasing

Total Global Fisheries Harvest ~160Mt


Why do we care

Why Do We Care?

  • Calories

  • High Quality Protein

    • Essential Amino Acids

  • Essential Fatty Acids (w3’s, w6’s)


  • Health benefits associated with fish consumption and levels of supporting evidence

    Health Benefits Associated with Fish Consumption and Levels of Supporting Evidence

    8


    Seafood nutritional benefits

    Seafood – Nutritional Benefits

    High quality protein

    High in omega-3 fatty acids

    Low in saturated fat

    Contributes to a healthy heart

    Contributes to proper growth and development of children

    Source of vitamins and minerals

    9


    Seafood nutritional benefits1

    Seafood – Nutritional Benefits

    High quality protein

    High in omega-3 fatty acids

    Low in saturated fat

    Contributes to a healthy heart

    Contributes to proper growth and development of children

    Source of vitamins and minerals

    16


    High quality protein

    High Quality Protein

    Protein needed for growth and maintenance

    Seafood contains all 9 essential amino acids

    Protein is highly digestible

    Fish contain 16-27 grams of protein

    17


    Fat facts

    Fat Facts

    • Nutritional Importance

    • Saturated

    • Polyunsaturated fats (PUFA’s)

    • Trans Fats

    • HDL, LDL, Cholesterol

    • Health Issues


    Ocn331

    O

    ω

    9

    6

    3

    1

    HO

    1

    9

    12

    15

    18

    α

    Alpha-Linolenic Acid

    O

    ω

    6

    1

    HO

    1

    5

    8

    11

    14

    α

    Arachidonic Acid


    Major sources of trans fats for u s adults

    Cakes, cookies etc.

    Animal Products

    Margarine

    Fried Potatoes

    Chips etc.

    Salad dressing

    Cereals

    Candy

    40%

    21%

    17%

    8%

    5%

    3%

    1%

    1%

    Major Sources of Trans Fats for U.S. Adults


    Omega 3 fatty acids

    Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Three types:

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

    Seafood

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    Seafood

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)

    Flaxseed, wheat germ, dark leafy greens

    22


    Epa dha content of fish

    Cod

    Flounder

    Mackerel

    Pollock

    Salmon, farmed

    Shrimp

    Trout

    Tuna, bluefin

    Tuna, canned

    0.13

    0.43

    1.57

    0.46

    1.83

    0.27

    0.80

    1.28

    0.73

    EPA & DHA Content of Fish


    3 fatty acids heart health

    JJ - CA – JA males

    Fish Consumption

    3oz/d vs ~2x/wk

    w3 intake ~7X

    Similar TFA levels

    ω3: JJ = 2X higher

    CAD: CA=JA >JJ

    IMT incr. as w3 decr.

    CAC incr. as w3 decr.

    ω3: JJ = 2X higher !

    ω3 Fatty Acids & Heart Health


    Proper growth and development of children

    Proper Growth and Development of Children

    Omega-3s and pregnancy

    During last trimester of pregnancy

    Rapid synthesis of brain tissue

    Omega-3s and premature infants

    Risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight

    Omega-3s and the newborn

    DHA is influenced by the mother’s diet

    25


    3 fatty acids fetus health

    ω3 Fatty Acids & Fetus Health

    • “Fish is Brainfood”

    • EPA & DHA (from week 20)

    • Important for Infants’

      • Nerve, Visual, Immune system development

      • DHA Supplements Breast Milk & Formulas

        Important for Infants’ Intellect

        -IQ-fish consumption correlation


    How the oceans make fish

    How the Oceans Make Fish

    • Primary Production  Commercial Fish

    • 3 Types of Ocean Areas

      • Open Ocean

      • Coastal Areas

      • Upwelling Areas


    Ocn331

    Sea surface

    herbivores

    grazing

    Winter mixed layer

    grazing

    phytoplankton

    carnivores

    Excretion, death, and sinking

    dissolved nutrients

    sinking

    Permanent pycnocline

    Upwelling and turbulent diffusion

    regeneration

    Nutrients in detritus

    dissolved nutrients


    Ocn331

    Trophic level

    7

    Large tuna, sharks, billfish (0.51)

    6

    Small tuna, salmon, squid (3.39)

    5

    Chaetognaths, micronekton (22.6)

    Mesopelagic vertical migrators (45.2)

    113

    226

    4

    Crustacean zooplankton (339)

    3

    Ciliates (1,695)

    Flagellates (8,476)

    2

    Algal picoplankton and nanoplankton (42,380)

    1


    Ocn331

    natural mortality

    and fishing

    large demersal fish (0.4)

    16.3

    8

    2

    16.3

    invertebrate carnivores (61)

    pelagic fish (32.6)

    demersal fish (10)

    102

    29

    306

    crustacean zooplankton (408)

    macrobenthos (49)

    20

    epifauna (4)

    408

    225

    ciliates (240)

    1,800

    bacteria (322)

    meiobenthos (19)

    97

    flagellates (1,200)

    1,200

    6,000

    phytoplankton (9,000)


    Ocn331

    invertebrate carnivores (1.4)

    natural mortality and fishing

    pelagic fish (9.3)

    6.8

    2.3

    crustacean zooplankton (9.1)

    ciliates (2.6)

    42.75

    42.75

    flagellates (12.9)

    64.5

    phytoplankton (150)


    Ocn331

    0.9

    large tuna, sharks, billfish (0.7)

    4.65

    6.21

    small tuna, salmon, squid (4.65)

    31

    31

    chaetognaths, micronekton (31)

    mesopelagic vertical migrators (63)

    157

    313

    470

    crustacean zooplankton (470)

    DOC (32,776)

    2,351

    2,351

    ciliates (2,351)

    11,754

    11,754

    flagellates (11,754)

    bacteria (16,388)

    42,380

    18,163

    algal picoplankton and nanoplankton (60,543)


    Open ocean area

    Deep

    Low inputs

    Mostly Regen. Nutrs.

    Stable Temporally

    Nutrient Limited

    Small Phytoplankton

    Long Food Chains

    Low Comm.Fish Yield

    Open Ocean Area


    Coastal areas

    Shallow

    Seasonal Inputs

    Seasonal Variability

    ~50% New Nutrients

    Larger Phytoplankton

    Shorter Food Chains

    Benthic Food Chains

    Gadoid fishes

    High Comm. Fish Yield

    Coastal Areas


    Upwelling areas

    Shallow

    Seasonal Inputs

    Seasonally Steady

    Mostly New Nutrients

    Larger Phytoplankton

    Short Food Chains

    Clupeid fish

    High Comm. Fish Yield

    Upwelling Areas


  • Login