“More Than Just a Picture ”: Creating and using visuals in social science research. Jennifer Cool [email protected] M.A. Visual Anthropology, 1993 Ph.D. Candidate, Anthropology University of Southern California www.cool.org/visualworkshop. Talk Outline. Workshop Purpose Definitions
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Unified layers (bits linked to atoms)
Writing presented per publication
Largely mono-media (text) with separate repositories for different media/genres (pictures, artifacts)
Write once publish anywhere
Highly multimedia & intermedia (text, image, audio, video, multiple document formats; multilingual, modular)InformationHypermedia
Film, documentary multimedia, Internet and web production:
Teaching film production, written, oral, and graphic communication:
Representation is a rhetorical act
Although we often hear that data speak for themselves, their voices can be soft and sly.
— Frederick Mosteller, Stephen E. Fienberg, and Robert E.K. Rourke,
Beginning Statistics with Data Analysis, 1983, p. 234.
Viewers make meaning
The treason of images
Two parables, an aphorism, and three aspects
“Rule 1: Never make a cut without a positive reason.”
— Edward Dmytryk, On Film Editing
Tufte: Scientific principles of Information design
“if displays of data are to be truthful and revealing, then the logic of the display design must reflect the logic of analysis.
Visual representations of evidence should be governed by principles of reasoning about quantitative evidence. For information displays, design reasoning must correspond to scientific reasoning. Clear and precise seeing becomes as one with clear and precise thinking.
— Edward Tufte, Visual Explanations, 1997, p. 53.
Displays should be documentary, comparative, causal and explanatory, quantified, multivariate, exploratory.
The documentary tradition
Image ethics and epistemologies
Know your subjects
Shoot whole events
Support film with documentation
Seek feedback from subjects
Seek feedback from sample audiences
Distribute film properly
Publish guide/monograph to distribute with film
Make an uncut version for scholarly research
Make royalty agreement with people filmed
Shoot whole events (focus was on discourse, not events)
On-going commitment to indigenous populationHome EconomicsAsch’s Ethics of Ethnographic Filmmaking
Documentary Motion Pictures
America by Numbers
Associate Professor, Studio Art, U.C. IrvineMiles Coolidge