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Intelligent Vehicles: A New World Coming….. Presentation to SAE In-Car Electronics and Telematics TOPTEC September 21, 2000 Richard Bishop Richard Bishop Consulting IV’s: This Joint is Jumpin’…. During/After Crash Technology Evolving Telematics is exploding

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Intelligent Vehicles:A New World Coming…..

Presentation to SAE In-Car Electronics and Telematics TOPTEC

September 21, 2000

Richard Bishop

Richard Bishop Consulting

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IV’s: This Joint is Jumpin’….

  • During/After Crash Technology Evolving

  • Telematics is exploding

    • “Information Layer” -- in-vehicle information

  • Driver Assistance systems entering market

    • “Control Layer” -- helps driver drive more safely, productively, efficiently

  • Automated Driving -- ongoing development

  • Results from significant activity in trucks, buses, special vehicles can flow to the passcar platform

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IV Activity Worldwide: The Players

  • Automotive / truck OEMs and suppliers worldwide

  • Publicly-funded programs in Asia, Europe, North America

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IV Players Worldwide: North America

  • USDOT Intelligent Vehicle Initiative

    • Goal: accelerate the deployment of near-term safety systems for cars, heavy trucks, buses, specialty vehicles

    • Cost-shared projects initiated in 1999 with truck OEMs and state DOTs

    • Pre-competitive research projects being negotiated with carmakers

    • Ambitious Safety Goals: example -- 50% reduction in heavy-truck related fatalities within ten years

  • Federal Transit Administration

    • Bus Rapid Transit program

  • USDOD: autonomous military vehicles

  • University research: California PATH, U. of Minnesota, Ohio State University

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    IV Players Worldwide: Asia

    • Japan

      • Advanced Cruise-Assist Research Association (AHSRA) very active (Ministries of Construction and Transportation)

      • Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) performing advanced work

    • Activity also in Korea, Singapore

    • Industrial automation in Australia

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    IV Players Worldwide: Europe

    • Europe

      • European Commission projects

        • 5th Framework Research Program

        • Projects include public and private sector participants from major countries

      • National level programs in France, Netherlands, Sweden

      • Research in Italy, Germany, UK

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    Driver Assistance Systems

    • Night Vision

    • Adaptive Cruise Control

    • Collision Warning

    • Collision Avoidance

    • Driver Impairment Monitoring

    • Advanced Driver Assistance

    • Cooperative Infrastructure

    • Automated Driving

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    Driver Assistance Systems: Adaptive Cruise Control

    • ACC: Foot-free driving

      • forward-looking radar “sees” slower vehicles ahead

      • system automatically adjusts speed and maintains a selectable following distance

      • desired speed is resumed when the way ahead is clear

      • some systems use digital maps to enhance operations

    • Now on the market for $1500-2000

      • Trucks: US (2000)

      • Cars: Japan (1997), Europe (1999), US (2000)

    • Next generation: stop-n-go traffic operation

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    Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning

    • Heavy trucks are where the market action is

    • Over 50,000 heavy trucks equipped with Eaton-Vorad radar-based system

      • covers forward zone and right blind spot

      • selling “thousands” per year

      • accident reductions of 50% or greater not unusual for some fleets

    • Lane departure warning entered heavy truck market in 1999

      • based on image processing

      • first on Mercedes trucks (Europe), followed by Freightliner (Iteris system)

      • now a factory option from Kenworth (SafeTRAC)

      • suitable for automotive aftermarket

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    Assistware’s Lane Departure Warning System

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    Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning

    • Transit Bus Performance Spec’s in Development

      • Forward Collision Warning: San Mateo (Ca.) transit system with California PATH

      • Rear Impact CW: Ann Arbor Transit with Veridian

      • Lane Change / Merge CW: Pittsburgh Transit (100 buses) with Carnegie Mellon

        • also initial research in Pedestrian Detection / Avoidance

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    Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive

    • Adaptive Cruise Control systems are edging in this direction

    • Ford signed agreement with Iteris for Lane Departure Warning Systems for MY2003

    • Japan SmartCruise systems

      • CW for forward obstacles/vehicles, road/lane departure, intersections, crossing paths, pedestrians, road condition

      • Systems also take control if driver does not heed warning

      • Major demo Nov 28 - Dec 1 near Tokyo

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    Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive

    • USDOT-Industry Joint Pre-competitive “Enabling Research” agreement in the works

    • Ford, GM, DaimlerChrysler, Nissan, Toyota & Navtech

    • Key focus areas:

      • Enhanced digital maps to augment collision warning systems

      • Develop driver workload performance metrics

      • Additional work in test methodologies for CW

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    Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Avoidance

    • Activity in forward CA, vehicle dynamics control, lane departure prevention, ACC w/brake actuation

    • NHTSA-GM: $35M cost-shared project: “ACAS”

      • using radar, vision for forward sensing

      • mostly collision warning, with modest braking

      • extensive algorithm development, vehicle integration, human factors (warnings), data collection, evaluation

      • naturalistic test with ten Buick LeSabres starts in 2002

    • Major benefits in congestion relief

      • majority of non-recurring congestion due to fender-benders

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    Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring

    • Is the Driver Fit to Drive???

    • Technology exists to monitor:

      • driving performance:

        • lane keeping (SPI), steering wheel movements

      • physiological factors:

        • ocular measures: blink rate, blink velocity, % eye closure…. you name it

        • head position monitoring

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    Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring

    • Major government research is focused on trucking

      • fatigue monitors

    • Systems are in product development cycle for cars and trucks

    • On the market:

      • Trucks: Basic systems now, advanced systems under development

      • Cars: higher reliability needed; strong market perceived for older drivers

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    Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring

    • Technology Approaches:

      • Ocular measures

        • Image processing of driver’s face with IR illumination

        • Active eye-tracking

      • Doppler radar illumination of face/body

        • tracks eye movements, head movements, etc.

      • Head movement monitoring using capacitor plates

      • Stereo image processing of eyes/face/head

      • Lane-keeping & steering input patterns

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    Headtrak:Proximity Array Sensing System

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    Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring

    • How do you wake ‘em up???

    • Some say “detect fatigue before drowsiness sets in,” giving driver plenty of advance warning

    • When drowsiness present, haptic feedback (seat vibration) seems most promising

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    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    • “Co-Pilot” functions will continue to emerge

      • Stop-n-go ACC for congested traffic (~2003)

      • Lane keeping on freeways (~2004)

      • Merge assistance (~2006)

    • The Killer App: Low Speed Automation!

      • Automated throttle, brakes, steering in tedious stop-n-go traffic

      • being developed in Europe, Japan

      • availability as early as 2005 overseas, 2007 in U.S.??

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    Cooperative Infrastructure Opens Up New Possibilities

    • Magnetic lane marking enables snowplow operations in zero visibility (Ca, Az, Mn)

      • Will car/truck products emerge to use magnet-marked roads?

    • Magnetic lane marking tape and vehicle system recently commercialized by 3M (Lane Awareness System)

    • Infrastructure Consortium looking at intersection collision avoidance techniques

    • Cooperative vehicle-infrastructure standards process in early stages

    • Arizona considering opening HOV lanes to Intelligent Vehicles, to incentivize public to adopt systems

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    Lane Awareness System: Sensor Bar on Snowplow

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    Insurance/Liability Implications:Enhanced DVI

    • Driver-vehicle interface evolving

      • voice-activated control, hands-free cellular phone, e-mail “read” to driver

    • OK, hands are on the wheel -- but where is the driver’s attention?

      • Eye-tracking technology tracks attention placement

      • Driver warnings can be tuned to attention placement

    • OK, attention is on the road -- but where is driver’s brain? Unsolved mystery….

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    Insurance/Consumer Implications:New Product Opportunities

    • New insurance products assess premiums in real-time, based on vehicle location & time

    • Future products: what can be monitored that provides an indication of driver behavior?

      • Frequency of hard accelerations, hard braking, excess speed, excess lateral acceleration, …..

      • Driving while fatigued

      • Driving with insufficient attention on the road

    • Safe drivers can choose to be monitored in order to save a few bucks

    • What should be monitored? Industry, regulators, and consumers will decide

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    Automated Driving: it’s coming!

    • Hands-off, feet-off driving: customers want it

    • Demonstrated in 1997 by National Automated Highway System Consortium

    • Basic system capability exists

      • machine intelligence & machine perception now being refined by researchers (California PATH, Ohio State U., France, Germany, Japan, Korea)

      • must transform into an affordable, trustworthy product

    • Bishop prediction: available in 2010

    • Revolutionary changes in society<>travel

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    Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (1)

    • California PATH: work continuing since Demo 97 to refine algorithms, hardware for both cars and heavy trucks

    • Mechanical Engineering Lab (Japan):

      • cooperative driving using 5.8 GHz DSRC intervehicle communication, DGPS, machine vision, radar, laser

      • Public demo announced for Nov. 22-27 near Tokyo

    • LIVIC: French La Route Automatisee program

      • research labs INRIA, INRETS, LCPC and OEM partners

      • focusing on sensor fusion in CARSENSE

      • scenarios and deployment paths defined for rural, intercity, and commuter scenarios

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    Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (2)

    • Korea University: KAV-5 relies on four cameras to follow road, vehicles

    • University of Parma (Italy): ARGO vision-based autonomous vehicle

      • successfully completed 2000 km tour of Italian roads

    • Arizona: conducted a planning study for automated lanes in median of Interstate 10 (Phoenix-Tucson)

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    Automated Driving: Heavy Trucks

    • CHAUFFEUR program in Europe demonstrated “electronic tow-bar” in 1999

      • Lead truck closely followed by fully automated second truck

      • Using vehicle-vehicle communication, image processing, active infrared, radar

    • CHAUFFEUR II implementing multiple trucks in platoons and improved image processing

      • Led by DaimlerChrysler with Renault VI and Iveco as OEM partners

    • Caltrans is sponsoring a study of adding automated truck lanes to Interstate 10, coast-to-coast

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    Automated Driving:Transit Buses

    • Bus Rapid Transit concept seeks to combine rail-like capacity with flexibility of buses

    • Exclusive lane operation in urban areas sometimes requires narrow lanes and lateral guidance

    • Guided bus systems being implemented in France, Netherlands, UK, USA

    • Toyota: Intelligent Multimodal Transit System

      • fully automated, using platooning techniques

    • Technologies include magnetic guidance, image processing

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    Automated Driving:Demo 2002

    • California DOT taking a lead role to stimulate the implementation of automated vehicles -- key to congestion relief

      • sees trucks / buses as precursor to cars

    • Caltrans sponsoring Demo 2002

      • Trucks in electronic towbar convoys

      • “Bus trains”

    • California PATH leading development

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    Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial

    • USDOD sponsoring $50 Demo III project

      • autonomous unmanned scout vehicles

      • off-road operation at 20 mph

      • on-road operation at 40 mph

      • using extensive sensor suite: MMW radar, foliage penetrating radar, laser scanner, FLIR, monochrome and color vision, stereo vision

    • Four vehicle undergoing rugged testing “with the troops” in October

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    Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial

    • Port automation: automated freight container movement (Rotterdam)

    • Autonomous mining vehicles

      • Australian Centre for Field Robotics

      • strip mining

      • underground mining

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    • There’s a lot going on! …. A diverse array of activity for all vehicle types

    • Look for increasingly intelligent vehicles to move most rapidly into commercial vehicle markets -- where the intelligence enhances the bottom line

    • Look for consumers to become increasingly comfortable with driver aids and demand more relief from the tedium of driving ….and look for the technology to deliver.

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    Resources / Events

    • ITS World Congress Intelligent Vehicle Exhibition

      • November 6-9, Turin, Italy

    • Japan’s Demo 2000 (

      • November 27 - December 1, Tsukuba City, Japan

    • ITS America (

    • -- Continued updates and reporting

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    • “Intelligent Vehicles” for Arizona

    • Mack Trucks IVI Op Test Fact Sheet

    • Mack Electronics

    • SafeTRAC Lane Departure Warning

    • 3M Lane Awareness System

      • samples of magnetic tape

    • Paper: Survey of IV Applications Worldwide

    • Japan Demo 2000