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Industrialization and Workers . Effects of Industrialization Ch. 6.3. The Growing Work Force. Increase in immigrants: 14 million new immigrants to the U.S. between 1860 and 1900 From 1860-1910 the US population jumped from 31.4 million to 91.9 million.

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industrialization and workers

Industrialization and Workers

Effects of Industrialization

Ch. 6.3

the growing work force
The Growing Work Force
  • Increase in immigrants:
    • 14 million new immigrants to the U.S. between 1860 and 1900
    • From 1860-1910 the US population jumped from 31.4 million to 91.9 million.
    • Over this span of forty years the population tripled in size.
  • Contract Labor Act (1864)
    • Immigration was encouraged by the federal government
    • Employers made contracts with immigrants in exchange for passage to the U.S.
the growing work force3
The Growing Work Force
  • 8-9 million Americans moved to cities during the late 1800s due to poor conditions and struggles on farms.
    • 46% of the U.S. population lived in urban areas.
    • Cities stretched to accommodate these millions and deteriorated in the process.
factory work
Factory Work
  • Most laborers worked 12 hrs. a day six days a week.
  • 1868 Federal employees granted eight-hour work day
    • but this didn’t apply to private industry
factory work5
Factory Work
  • Piecework: A system where workers were paid not by the time worked but by what they produced.
  • Most of this type of work was done in sweatshops.
    • A shop where employees worked long hours, at low wages, under poor working conditions
factory work6
Factory Work
  • Increasing Efficiency -
    • Fredrick Winslow Taylor-
    • Goal to increase productivity to increase profits but sometimes led to layoffs.
  • Division of Labor -
    • factory workers performed one small task, over and over, and rarely saw the finished product.
    • Caused workers to be disconnected from the finished product and
    • Owners saw their employees as “parts” and did not interact with them as much.
factory work7
Factory Work
  • The Work Environment
    • Workers were ruled by the clock
    • Discipline was strict
    • Workplaces were not always safe--noise, poor lighting and ventilation were challenges.
    • Still offered better pay and more opportunities than other jobs.
    • The practice of child labor came under attack [Jacob Riis]
working families
Working Families
  • In the 1880’s children made up more than 5% of the industrial labor force.
  • Children’s wages often supplemented the family income and some left school to work.
  • Families in need relied on private charities as the government did not provide public assistance.
gulf between rich and poor
Gulf Between Rich and Poor
  • In 1890 the richest 9% of Americans held about 75% of the wealth.
  • Socialism gained popularity
    • An economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private of the means of production.
    • Wealth should be distributed equally to everyone.
    • The wealthy saw this as a threat to their fortunes, politicians saw it as a threat to public order.
the rise of labor unions
The Rise of Labor Unions

The Knights of Labor

  • Hoped to organize all working men and women, skilled and unskilled into a single union and recruited African Americans.
  • They fought for:
    • Equal pay for equal work, and 8-hour workday and an end to child labor
    • Sought to help their members through political activity and education
  • Sponsored first Labor Day on September 5, 1882
the rise of labor unions12
TheRise of Labor Unions
  • American Federation of Labor
    • The AFL was a craft union
    • Hoped to organize only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions each devoted to a specific craft.
    • Women and African Americans were generally excluded.
    • Focused mainly on issues of workers’ wages, hours and working conditions.
  • Used economic pressure against employers-strikes and boycotts.
  • Collective bargaining:
    • the process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers.
the rise of labor unions13
The Rise of Labor Unions

The Wobblies

  • Founded by those who opposed the AFL’spolicies
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
  • A radical union focused on unskilled workers and included many socialists.
  • Many of their strikes were violent
the rise of labor unions14
The Rise of Labor Unions
  • Reaction of Employers
    • They generally disliked and feared unions
    • Took measures to stop unions
      • Forbid union meetings
      • Firing union organizers
      • Sign “yellow dog” contract
      • Refuse to bargain collectively.
railroad workers organize
Railroad Workers Organize
  • The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
    • Railway workers protested unfair wage cuts and unsafe working conditions.
    • The strike was violent and unorganized.
    • President Hayes sent federal troops to put down the strikes.
    • From then on, employers relied on federal and state troops to repress labor unrest.
  • Debs and the American Railway Union
    • At the time of the 1877 strike, railroad workers mainly organized into various “brotherhoods,” which were basically craft unions.
    • Eugene V. Debs proposed a new industrial union for all railway workers called the American Railway Union (A.R.U.).
    • The A.R.U. would replace all of the brotherhoods and unite all railroad workers, skilled and unskilled.
the haymarket riot
The Haymarket Riot

Haymarket, 1886

  • On May 1, groups of workers mounted a national demonstration for an eight-hour workday.
  • On May 3, police broke up a fight between strikers and scabs. (A scab is a negative term for a worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers.)
  • Union leaders called a protest rally on the evening of May 4 in Chicago’s Haymarket Square.
  • A group of anarchists, radicals who oppose all government, joined the strikers.
  • At the event, someone threw a bomb that killed a police officer.
  • The riot that followed killed dozens on both sides.
  • Investigators never found the bomb thrower, yet eight anarchists were tried for conspiracy to commit murder. Four were hanged.
strikes rock the nation
Strikes Rock the Nation
  • Homestead 1892
    • In 1892, Andrew Carnegie’s partner, Henry Frick, tried to cut workers’ wages at Carnegie Steel.
    • The union called a strike and Frick called in the Pinkertons.
    • The union called off the Homestead Strike after an anarchist tried to assassinate Frick.
    • Even though the anarchist was not connected to the strike, the public associated his act with rising labor violence.
strikes rock the nation19
Strikes Rock the Nation
  • Pullman, 1894
    • Eugene Debs instructed strikers not to interfere with the nation’s mail.
    • Railway owners turned to the government for help. The judge cited the Sherman Antitrust Act and won a court order forbidding all union activity that halted railroad traffic.
    • Court orders against unions continued, limiting union gains for the next 30 years.