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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Chapter 2: TCP/IP Architecture Objectives Understand TCP/IP addressing Describe the overall architecture of TCP/IP Describe Application layer protocols Discuss Transport layer protocols

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70 293 mcse guide to planning a microsoft windows server 2003 network chapter 2 tcp ip architecture l.jpg

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 NetworkChapter 2: TCP/IP Architecture


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives 2003 Network

  • Understand TCP/IP addressing

  • Describe the overall architecture of TCP/IP

  • Describe Application layer protocols

  • Discuss Transport layer protocols

  • Understand the role of various Internet layer protocols, including IP,ICMP, and ARP

  • Understand Network Interface layer protocols

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Introduction To TCP/IP 2003 Network

  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

    • Most commonly used network protocol suite today

    • Wide vendor support

    • Open protocol

    • Provides access to Internet services

  • Windows Server 2003

    • Can use several protocols

    • Many of its main features require the use of TCP/IP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-1: 2003 NetworkRepairing a Network Connection

  • The purpose of this activity is to repair a connection that has a corrupt TCP/IP configuration

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IP Addresses 2003 Network

  • An IP address, like a mailing address for a house, is unique

  • An IP addresses has four numbers, each called an octet, that are separated by periods

  • Each octet in an IP address represents eight bits of information

  • A full IP address of four octets is 32 bits long

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IP Addresses (continued) 2003 Network

  • An example of an IP address is 192.168.5.66

  • An IP address is composed of two parts: the network ID and the host ID

  • The network ID represents the network on which the computer is located

  • The host ID represents the individual computer on a network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Subnet Masks 2003 Network

  • A subnet mask defines which part of its IP address is the network ID and which part is the host ID

  • Subnet masks are composed of four octets just like an IP address

  • Wherever there is a 255 in the subnet mask, that octet is part of the network ID

  • Wherever there is a 0 in the subnet mask, that octet is part of the host ID

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Subnet Masks (continued) 2003 Network

  • A computer uses its subnet mask to determine

    • Which network it is on

    • Whether other computers are on the same network or a different network

  • If two computers on the same network are communicating, then they can deliver packets directly to each other

  • If two computers are on different networks, they must use a router to communicate

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Subnet Masks (continued) 2003 Network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Default Gateway 2003 Network

  • Default gateway is another term for router

  • If a computer does not know how to deliver a packet, it gives the packet to the default gateway to deliver

  • Routers can distinguish multiple networks and how to move packets between them

  • Routers can also figure out the best path to use to move a packet between different networks

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-2: 2003 NetworkViewing IP Address Configuration

  • The purpose of this activity is to view the current IP address settings on a server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IP Address Classes 2003 Network

  • IP addresses are divided into classes: A-E

  • IP address classes can be identified by the first octet

  • Class A addresses use eight bits for the network ID and 24 bits for the host ID

  • Class A networks are only assigned to very large companies and Internet providers

  • Class B addresses use 16 bits for the network ID and 16 bits for the host ID

  • Class B networks are assigned to many larger organizations, such as governments, universities, and companies with several thousand users

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IP Address Classes (continued) 2003 Network

  • Class C addresses use 24 bits for the network ID and eight bits for the host ID

  • Class C networks have a relatively small number of hosts and are suited only to smaller organizations

  • Class D addresses are not divided into networks and they cannot be assigned to computers as IP addresses

  • Class D addresses are used for multicasting

  • Class E addresses are considered experimental and are not used

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IP Address Classes (continued) 2003 Network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Classless Inter-domain Routing 2003 Network

  • Classless interdomain routing (CIDR) makes Internet routing and assignment of IP addresses more efficient

  • CIDR does not use the default subnet masks for routing. Instead, the subnet mask must be defined for each network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Classless Inter-domain Routing (continued) 2003 Network

  • Definable subnet mask is more flexible and efficient

  • CIDR reduces the number of routing table entries that Internet backbone routers must hold

  • A single routing table entry can replace hundreds or thousands of entries for Class C networks

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Reserved Addresses 2003 Network

  • Reserved addresses are a number of IP addresses and IP networks that are reserved for special purposes and either cannot be assigned to hosts or cannot be used on the Internet

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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DNS 2003 Network

  • Domain Name System (DNS) is used to:

    • resolve host names to IP addresses

    • find domain controllers

    • find e-mail servers

  • DNS is essential for Active Directory to work properly

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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WINS 2003 Network

  • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is used to:

    • resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses

    • stores information about services such as domain controllers

    • Provide backward compatibility with Windows NT and Windows 9x

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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DHCP 2003 Network

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an automated mechanism to assign IP addresses to clients

  • Automating this process avoids the problem of records being entered incorrectly

  • If a change needs to be made for the IP addressing information, you can simply change the information in the DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-3: 2003 NetworkUsing IPCONFIG to View IP Configuration

  • The purpose of this activity is to view the current IP settings using the IPCONFIG utility

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-4: 2003 NetworkConfiguring an Alternative IP Configuration

  • The purpose of this activity is to configure alternative IP address information to be used when a DHCP server is unavailable

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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TCP/IP Architecture Overview 2003 Network

  • The TCP/IP model can be broken down into four layers:

    • Application

    • Transport

    • Internet

    • Network Interface

  • Application layer provides access to network resources

  • It defines rules, commands, and procedures for client to talk to a service running on a server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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TCP/IP Architecture Overview (continued) 2003 Network

  • Transport layer is responsible for preparing data to be transported across the network

  • Internet layer is responsible for logical addressing and routing

  • Network Interface layer consists of the network card driver and the network card itself

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Application Layer Protocols 2003 Network

  • There are many Application layer protocols, each of which is associated with a client application and service

    • HTTP

    • FTP

    • TELNET

    • SMTP

    • POP3

    • IMAP4

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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HTTP 2003 Network

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the most common protocol used on the Internet today

  • HTTP defines the commands that Web browsers can send and how Web servers are capable of responding

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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FTP 2003 Network

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is file-sharing protocol

  • FTP is implemented in stand-alone FTP clients as well as in Web browsers

  • It is safe to say that most FTP users today are using Web browsers

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-5: 2003 NetworkUsing FTP to Download a File

  • The purpose of this activity is to use FTP to download a utility

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Telnet l.jpg
TELNET 2003 Network

  • Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol that is primarily used to connect remotely to UNIX and Linux Systems

  • The Telnet protocol specifies how a telnet server and telnet client communicate

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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SMTP 2003 Network

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to send and receive e-mail messages between e-mail servers that are communicating

  • It is used by e-mail client software, such as Outlook Express, to send messages to the server

  • SMTP is never used to retrieve e-mail from a server when you are reading it

  • Other protocols control the reading of e-mail messages

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-6: Using Telnet to Verify SMTP 2003 Network

  • The purpose of this activity is to use Telnet to verify the functionality of an SMTP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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POP3 2003 Network

  • Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is the most common protocol used for reading e-mail messages

  • This protocol has commands to download messages and delete messages from the mail server

  • POP3 does not support sending messages

  • POP3 supports only a single inbox and does not support multiple folders for storage on the server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IMAP4 2003 Network

  • Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) is another common protocol used to read e-mail messages

  • IMAP4 can download message headers only and allow you to choose which messages to download

  • IMAP4 allows for multiple folders on the server side to store messages

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Transport layer protocols l.jpg
Transport Layer Protocols 2003 Network

  • Transport layer protocols are responsible for getting data ready to move across the network

  • The most common task performed by Transport layer protocols is breaking entire messages down into packets

  • Transport layer protocols use port numbers

  • Each Transport layer protocol has its own set of ports

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Transport Layer Protocols (continued) 2003 Network

  • When a packet is addressed to a particular port, the Transport layer protocol knows to which service to deliver the packet

  • The combination of an IP address and port number is referred to as a socket

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Transport Layer Protocols (continued) 2003 Network

  • A port number is like an apartment number for the delivery of mail

  • Network ID of the IP address ensures packet is delivered to the correct street (network)

  • Host ID ensures packet is delivered to the correct building (host)

  • Transport layer protocol and port number ensure packet is delivered to the proper apartment (service)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-7: 2003 NetworkUsing Port Numbers

  • The purpose of this activity is to Connect to resources using TCP and UDP port numbers

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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TCP 2003 Network

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most commonly used Transport layer protocol

  • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable

  • Connection-oriented means that TCP creates and verifies a connection with a remote host before sending information

  • Verifies that the remote host exists and is willing to communicate before starting the conversation

  • TCP is the Transport layer protocol used for most Internet services

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-8: 2003 NetworkInstalling Network Monitor

  • The purpose of this activity is to install Network Monitor to enable packet capturing

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 2 9 viewing a tcp connection in network monitor l.jpg
Activity 2-9: 2003 NetworkViewing a TCP Connection in Network Monitor

  • The purpose of this activity is to capture and view TCP connection packets in Network Monitor

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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UDP 2003 Network

  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

    • Not as commonly used as TCP

    • Used for different services

    • Connectionless and unreliable

  • UDP is the appropriate if

    • Unconcerned about missing packets

    • Want to implement reliability in a special way

  • Streaming audio and video are in this category

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 2 10 capturing udp packets in network monitor l.jpg
Activity 2-10: 2003 NetworkCapturing UDP Packets in Network Monitor

  • The purpose of this activity is to capture and view UDP packets in Network Monitor

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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TCP versus UDP 2003 Network

  • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable

    • Like registered mail

  • UDP is connectionless and unreliable

    • Like sending a message split on several postcards and assuming that the receiver will be able to put the message together

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Internet layer protocols l.jpg
Internet Layer Protocols 2003 Network

  • Internet layer protocols are responsible for all tasks related to logical addressing

  • An IP address is a logical address

  • Any protocol that is aware of other networks exists at this layer

  • Each Internet layer protocol is very specialized

  • They include: IP, RIP and OSPF, ICMP, IGMP, and ARP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IP 2003 Network

  • Internet Protocol (IP) is responsible for the logical addressing of each packet created by the Transport layer

  • As each packet is built, IP adds the source and destination IP address to the packet

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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RIP and OSPF 2003 Network

  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) are both routing protocols

  • They are responsible for defining how paths are chosen through the internetwork from one computer to another

  • They also define how routers can share information about the networks of which they are aware

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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ICMP 2003 Network

  • Internet Control Messaging Protocol (ICMP) is used to send IP error and control messages between routers and hosts

  • The most common use of ICMP is the ping utility

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-11: 2003 NetworkTesting Host Functionality

  • The purpose of this activity is to test the functionality of a host using the ping command

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-12: Viewing TTL 2003 Network

  • The purpose of this activity is to view the TTL of a ping packet

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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IGMP 2003 Network

  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used for the management of multicast groups

  • Hosts use IGMP to inform routers of their membership in multicast groups

  • Routers use IGMP to announce that their networks have members in particular multicast groups

  • The use of IGMP allows multicast packets to be distributed only to routers that have interested hosts connected

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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ARP 2003 Network

  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to convert logical IP addresses to physical MAC addresses

  • This is an essential part of the packet delivery process

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Activity 2-13: 2003 NetworkViewing the ARP Cache

  • The purpose of this activity is to View the contents of the ARP cache

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Network Interface Layer Protocols 2003 Network

  • Most of the common Network Interface layer protocols are defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Summary 2003 Network

  • Windows Server 2003 uses TCP/IP as its primary networking protocol

  • An IP address has a network ID and a host ID

  • A subnet mask defines which part of the IP address is the network ID and which is host ID

  • A default gateway is required to deliver packets of information from one network to another

  • The TCP/IP model is composed of four layers: Application, Transport, Internet, Network Interface

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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Summary (continued) 2003 Network

  • HTTP is the most common protocol used on the Internet today

  • The two Transport layer protocols are TCP and UDP

  • The two Transport layer protocols are TCP and UDP

  • Internet layer protocols are responsible for all tasks related to logical addressing and are all very specialized

  • Internet layer protocols include IP, RIP, OSPF, ICMP, IGMP, and ARP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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