70 293 mcse guide to planning a microsoft windows server 2003 network chapter 2 tcp ip architecture
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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Chapter 2: TCP/IP Architecture Objectives Understand TCP/IP addressing Describe the overall architecture of TCP/IP Describe Application layer protocols Discuss Transport layer protocols

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70 293 mcse guide to planning a microsoft windows server 2003 network chapter 2 tcp ip architecture

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 NetworkChapter 2: TCP/IP Architecture

objectives
Objectives
  • Understand TCP/IP addressing
  • Describe the overall architecture of TCP/IP
  • Describe Application layer protocols
  • Discuss Transport layer protocols
  • Understand the role of various Internet layer protocols, including IP,ICMP, and ARP
  • Understand Network Interface layer protocols

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

introduction to tcp ip
Introduction To TCP/IP
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
    • Most commonly used network protocol suite today
    • Wide vendor support
    • Open protocol
    • Provides access to Internet services
  • Windows Server 2003
    • Can use several protocols
    • Many of its main features require the use of TCP/IP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 1 repairing a network connection
Activity 2-1: Repairing a Network Connection
  • The purpose of this activity is to repair a connection that has a corrupt TCP/IP configuration

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

ip addresses
IP Addresses
  • An IP address, like a mailing address for a house, is unique
  • An IP addresses has four numbers, each called an octet, that are separated by periods
  • Each octet in an IP address represents eight bits of information
  • A full IP address of four octets is 32 bits long

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

ip addresses continued
IP Addresses (continued)
  • An example of an IP address is 192.168.5.66
  • An IP address is composed of two parts: the network ID and the host ID
  • The network ID represents the network on which the computer is located
  • The host ID represents the individual computer on a network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

subnet masks
Subnet Masks
  • A subnet mask defines which part of its IP address is the network ID and which part is the host ID
  • Subnet masks are composed of four octets just like an IP address
  • Wherever there is a 255 in the subnet mask, that octet is part of the network ID
  • Wherever there is a 0 in the subnet mask, that octet is part of the host ID

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

subnet masks continued
Subnet Masks (continued)
  • A computer uses its subnet mask to determine
    • Which network it is on
    • Whether other computers are on the same network or a different network
  • If two computers on the same network are communicating, then they can deliver packets directly to each other
  • If two computers are on different networks, they must use a router to communicate

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

subnet masks continued9
Subnet Masks (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

default gateway
Default Gateway
  • Default gateway is another term for router
  • If a computer does not know how to deliver a packet, it gives the packet to the default gateway to deliver
  • Routers can distinguish multiple networks and how to move packets between them
  • Routers can also figure out the best path to use to move a packet between different networks

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 2 viewing ip address configuration
Activity 2-2: Viewing IP Address Configuration
  • The purpose of this activity is to view the current IP address settings on a server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

ip address classes
IP Address Classes
  • IP addresses are divided into classes: A-E
  • IP address classes can be identified by the first octet
  • Class A addresses use eight bits for the network ID and 24 bits for the host ID
  • Class A networks are only assigned to very large companies and Internet providers
  • Class B addresses use 16 bits for the network ID and 16 bits for the host ID
  • Class B networks are assigned to many larger organizations, such as governments, universities, and companies with several thousand users

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

ip address classes continued
IP Address Classes (continued)
  • Class C addresses use 24 bits for the network ID and eight bits for the host ID
  • Class C networks have a relatively small number of hosts and are suited only to smaller organizations
  • Class D addresses are not divided into networks and they cannot be assigned to computers as IP addresses
  • Class D addresses are used for multicasting
  • Class E addresses are considered experimental and are not used

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

ip address classes continued14
IP Address Classes (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

classless inter domain routing
Classless Inter-domain Routing
  • Classless interdomain routing (CIDR) makes Internet routing and assignment of IP addresses more efficient
  • CIDR does not use the default subnet masks for routing. Instead, the subnet mask must be defined for each network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

classless inter domain routing continued
Classless Inter-domain Routing (continued)
  • Definable subnet mask is more flexible and efficient
  • CIDR reduces the number of routing table entries that Internet backbone routers must hold
  • A single routing table entry can replace hundreds or thousands of entries for Class C networks

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

reserved addresses
Reserved Addresses
  • Reserved addresses are a number of IP addresses and IP networks that are reserved for special purposes and either cannot be assigned to hosts or cannot be used on the Internet

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide18
DNS
  • Domain Name System (DNS) is used to:
    • resolve host names to IP addresses
    • find domain controllers
    • find e-mail servers
  • DNS is essential for Active Directory to work properly

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide19
WINS
  • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is used to:
    • resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses
    • stores information about services such as domain controllers
    • Provide backward compatibility with Windows NT and Windows 9x

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide20
DHCP
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an automated mechanism to assign IP addresses to clients
  • Automating this process avoids the problem of records being entered incorrectly
  • If a change needs to be made for the IP addressing information, you can simply change the information in the DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 3 using ipconfig to view ip configuration
Activity 2-3:Using IPCONFIG to View IP Configuration
  • The purpose of this activity is to view the current IP settings using the IPCONFIG utility

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 4 configuring an alternative ip configuration
Activity 2-4: Configuring an Alternative IP Configuration
  • The purpose of this activity is to configure alternative IP address information to be used when a DHCP server is unavailable

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

tcp ip architecture overview
TCP/IP Architecture Overview
  • The TCP/IP model can be broken down into four layers:
    • Application
    • Transport
    • Internet
    • Network Interface
  • Application layer provides access to network resources
  • It defines rules, commands, and procedures for client to talk to a service running on a server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

tcp ip architecture overview continued
TCP/IP Architecture Overview (continued)
  • Transport layer is responsible for preparing data to be transported across the network
  • Internet layer is responsible for logical addressing and routing
  • Network Interface layer consists of the network card driver and the network card itself

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

application layer protocols
Application Layer Protocols
  • There are many Application layer protocols, each of which is associated with a client application and service
    • HTTP
    • FTP
    • TELNET
    • SMTP
    • POP3
    • IMAP4

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide26
HTTP
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the most common protocol used on the Internet today
  • HTTP defines the commands that Web browsers can send and how Web servers are capable of responding

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide27
FTP
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is file-sharing protocol
  • FTP is implemented in stand-alone FTP clients as well as in Web browsers
  • It is safe to say that most FTP users today are using Web browsers

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 5 using ftp to download a file
Activity 2-5: Using FTP to Download a File
  • The purpose of this activity is to use FTP to download a utility

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

telnet
TELNET
  • Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol that is primarily used to connect remotely to UNIX and Linux Systems
  • The Telnet protocol specifies how a telnet server and telnet client communicate

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide30
SMTP
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to send and receive e-mail messages between e-mail servers that are communicating
  • It is used by e-mail client software, such as Outlook Express, to send messages to the server
  • SMTP is never used to retrieve e-mail from a server when you are reading it
  • Other protocols control the reading of e-mail messages

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 6 using telnet to verify smtp
Activity 2-6: Using Telnet to Verify SMTP
  • The purpose of this activity is to use Telnet to verify the functionality of an SMTP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide32
POP3
  • Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is the most common protocol used for reading e-mail messages
  • This protocol has commands to download messages and delete messages from the mail server
  • POP3 does not support sending messages
  • POP3 supports only a single inbox and does not support multiple folders for storage on the server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

imap4
IMAP4
  • Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) is another common protocol used to read e-mail messages
  • IMAP4 can download message headers only and allow you to choose which messages to download
  • IMAP4 allows for multiple folders on the server side to store messages

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

transport layer protocols
Transport Layer Protocols
  • Transport layer protocols are responsible for getting data ready to move across the network
  • The most common task performed by Transport layer protocols is breaking entire messages down into packets
  • Transport layer protocols use port numbers
  • Each Transport layer protocol has its own set of ports

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

transport layer protocols continued
Transport Layer Protocols (continued)
  • When a packet is addressed to a particular port, the Transport layer protocol knows to which service to deliver the packet
  • The combination of an IP address and port number is referred to as a socket

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

transport layer protocols continued36
Transport Layer Protocols (continued)
  • A port number is like an apartment number for the delivery of mail
  • Network ID of the IP address ensures packet is delivered to the correct street (network)
  • Host ID ensures packet is delivered to the correct building (host)
  • Transport layer protocol and port number ensure packet is delivered to the proper apartment (service)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 7 using port numbers
Activity 2-7: Using Port Numbers
  • The purpose of this activity is to Connect to resources using TCP and UDP port numbers

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide38
TCP
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most commonly used Transport layer protocol
  • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable
  • Connection-oriented means that TCP creates and verifies a connection with a remote host before sending information
  • Verifies that the remote host exists and is willing to communicate before starting the conversation
  • TCP is the Transport layer protocol used for most Internet services

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 8 installing network monitor
Activity 2-8: Installing Network Monitor
  • The purpose of this activity is to install Network Monitor to enable packet capturing

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 9 viewing a tcp connection in network monitor
Activity 2-9: Viewing a TCP Connection in Network Monitor
  • The purpose of this activity is to capture and view TCP connection packets in Network Monitor

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide41
UDP
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    • Not as commonly used as TCP
    • Used for different services
    • Connectionless and unreliable
  • UDP is the appropriate if
    • Unconcerned about missing packets
    • Want to implement reliability in a special way
  • Streaming audio and video are in this category

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 10 capturing udp packets in network monitor
Activity 2-10: Capturing UDP Packets in Network Monitor
  • The purpose of this activity is to capture and view UDP packets in Network Monitor

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

tcp versus udp
TCP versus UDP
  • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable
    • Like registered mail
  • UDP is connectionless and unreliable
    • Like sending a message split on several postcards and assuming that the receiver will be able to put the message together

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

internet layer protocols
Internet Layer Protocols
  • Internet layer protocols are responsible for all tasks related to logical addressing
  • An IP address is a logical address
  • Any protocol that is aware of other networks exists at this layer
  • Each Internet layer protocol is very specialized
  • They include: IP, RIP and OSPF, ICMP, IGMP, and ARP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide45
IP
  • Internet Protocol (IP) is responsible for the logical addressing of each packet created by the Transport layer
  • As each packet is built, IP adds the source and destination IP address to the packet

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

rip and ospf
RIP and OSPF
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) are both routing protocols
  • They are responsible for defining how paths are chosen through the internetwork from one computer to another
  • They also define how routers can share information about the networks of which they are aware

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide47
ICMP
  • Internet Control Messaging Protocol (ICMP) is used to send IP error and control messages between routers and hosts
  • The most common use of ICMP is the ping utility

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 11 testing host functionality
Activity 2-11: Testing Host Functionality
  • The purpose of this activity is to test the functionality of a host using the ping command

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 12 viewing ttl
Activity 2-12: Viewing TTL
  • The purpose of this activity is to view the TTL of a ping packet

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide50
IGMP
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used for the management of multicast groups
  • Hosts use IGMP to inform routers of their membership in multicast groups
  • Routers use IGMP to announce that their networks have members in particular multicast groups
  • The use of IGMP allows multicast packets to be distributed only to routers that have interested hosts connected

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

slide51
ARP
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to convert logical IP addresses to physical MAC addresses
  • This is an essential part of the packet delivery process

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 2 13 viewing the arp cache
Activity 2-13: Viewing the ARP Cache
  • The purpose of this activity is to View the contents of the ARP cache

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

network interface layer protocols
Network Interface Layer Protocols
  • Most of the common Network Interface layer protocols are defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

summary
Summary
  • Windows Server 2003 uses TCP/IP as its primary networking protocol
  • An IP address has a network ID and a host ID
  • A subnet mask defines which part of the IP address is the network ID and which is host ID
  • A default gateway is required to deliver packets of information from one network to another
  • The TCP/IP model is composed of four layers: Application, Transport, Internet, Network Interface

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • HTTP is the most common protocol used on the Internet today
  • The two Transport layer protocols are TCP and UDP
  • The two Transport layer protocols are TCP and UDP
  • Internet layer protocols are responsible for all tasks related to logical addressing and are all very specialized
  • Internet layer protocols include IP, RIP, OSPF, ICMP, IGMP, and ARP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

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