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Education Technology Train of Life --- ..\..\TOLRailway.wav Dance --- Bob Jensen Emeritus Professor of Accounting Trinity University in San Antonio 190 Sunset Hill Road Sugar Hill, NH 03586 603-823-8482 [email protected] http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/

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Education TechnologyTrain of Life --- ..\..\TOLRailway.wavDance ---

Bob JensenEmeritus Professor of AccountingTrinity University in San Antonio 190 Sunset Hill RoadSugar Hill, NH 03586

[email protected]

http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/

“Therein lies the real trouble. Learning is labor. We're selling the fantasy that technology can change that. It can’t. No technology ever has. Gutenberg’s press only made it easier to print books, not easier to read and understand them.”Peter Berger, "The Land of iPods and Honey," The Irascible Professor, February 26, 2007 ---  at http://irascibleprofessor.com/comments-02-26-07.htm



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Multimedia Beethovenby Robert Winter, UCLA

  • A Pocket Guide to Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony

  • Life and Times of Beethoven

  • Guide for Listening Enhancement

  • Sequential Analyses as Symphony Plays All Four Parts

    • A Close Analysis for Musicians

    • A Close Analysis for Listeners

  • The Ninth Game


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Synchronous vs. Asynchronous

  • Traditional Courses

  • Online Courses

  • Adept at Stanford vs. Amy Dunbar at UCON


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Education Technology

Bob Jensen’s Education Technology Links --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/0000start.htm

Local Computer Link --- Click Here


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  • Links to Bob Jensen's Workshop Documents on Education and Learning Bob Jensen's Education and Learning

  • The Shocking Future of Education (Including Open-Share Course Materials From Prestigious Universities)

  • E-Learning and Distance Education's Top (Award-Winning) Illustrations

  • Bob Jensen's Threads on Cross-Border (Transnational) Training and Education

  • Alternatives and Tricks/Tools of the Trade      (Including Edutainment and Learning Games)     (Includes aids for the handicapped, disabled, and learning challenged)


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  • The Dark Side of the 21st Century: Concerns About Technologies in Education 

  • Assessment Issues, Case Studies, and Research

  • History and Future of Course Authoring TechnologiesDetails

  • Knowledge Portals and VortalsDetails

  • Bob Jensen's Advice to New Faculty (and Resources)

  • Bob Jensen's Threads on Electronic Books

  • Threads of Online Program Costs and Faculty Compensation

  • Bob Jensen's Helper Videos and Tutorials


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  • Jensen and Sandlin Book entitled Technologies in Education Electronic Teaching and Learning: Trends in Adapting to Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Networks in Higher Education(both the 1994 and 1997 Updated Versions)Some Earlier Papers

  • Working Paper 265 on MetacognitionMetacognitive Concerns in Designs and Evaluations of Computer Aided Education and Training:Are We Misleading Ourselves About Measures of Success?http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/265wp.htm


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  • Working Paper 255 on Asynchronous Learning Networks Technologies in Education Using Asynchronous Network Courses to Bridge Gaps in theTeeth of a University Curriculum With Imported Gold: BridgeworkMay Be Optimally Effective Only by Incurring High Labor Expenseshttp://www.trinity.edu/rjnsen/255wp.htm

  •  Additional Links and Threads --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/Threads.htm


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The Year 1858 Technologies in Education 

When the University of London instituted correspondence courses in 1858, the first university to do so, its students (typically expatriates in what were then the colonies of Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and South Africa), discovered the programme by word of mouth and wrote the university to enroll.  the university then despatched, by post-and-boat, what today we would call the course outline, a set of previous examination papers and a list of places around the world where examinations were conducted.  It left any "learning" to the hapless student, who sat the examination whenever he or she felt ready:  a truly "flexible" schedule!  this was the first generation of distance education (Tabsall and Ryan, 1999):  "independent" learning for highly motivated and resourceful autodidacts disadvantaged by distance. (Page 71) Yoni Ryan who wrote Chapter 5 ofThe Changing Faces of Virtual Education -Dr. Glen Farrell, Study Team Leader and EditorThe Commonwealth of Learning


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Myths About Education Technologies Technologies in Education 

  • Myths Online Link --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/thetools.htm#Myths Myths Local Computer Link --- ../../000aaa/thetools.htm#Myths

  • Online E-testing can reduce cheating(Barsky&Catanach) --- http://www.cs.trinity.edu/~rjensen/EdTech/Etesting.pdf

    Local Link --- ..\Etesting.pdf


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Using E-Learning Technologies to Enhance Technologies in Education Delivery of the Introductory ManagerialAccounting Course

  • American Accounting Association 2007 Jim Bulloch Award for Innovation in Management Education --- http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/08/29/e_testhttp://www.cs.trinity.edu/~rjensen/EdTech/Etesting.pdf

    Local Link --- ..\Etesting.pdf


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E-testing Can Reduce Cheating Technologies in Education Basrsky & Catanach --- ..\Etesting.pdf

  • Learning Modules on Blackboard Server

  • Randomized subsets of questions and ordering of questions

  • Unique numbers for each computational problem

  • Immediate feedback with possibility of retaking for part credit


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Online Testing Technologies in Education http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/assess.htm#OnlineOffCampusLocal Link --- ../../assess.htm#OnlineOffCampus

  • UserView can be used for remote testing --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/assess.htm#OnlineOffCampus

  • Sylvan Learning Centers

  • Student Partnering Attestations

  • Village Vicar, Employment Supervisors, etc.

  • Assessmeent in General--- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/assess.htmLocal Link --- ..\..\assess.htm


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Active Versus Passive Learning Technologies in Education 

Web Link --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/265wp.htm

Local Link --- ..\..\265wp.htm


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Memory & Metacognition Technologies in Education 

Multimedia and Other Technologies Can Give Students What They Want by Making Learning More of the Following:

  • Easy (e.g., interactive graphics, interactive databases, ease of search, ease of access, ease of finding help, ease of navigation, etc.)

  • Fun (animations, videos, audio, etc.)

  • Inspirational (cream-of-the-crop instructors, access to experts and motivators)

  • Realistic (networked simulations and virtual reality)

  • Collaborative (ease of communication and collaborative software)

  • Efficient (learn from any location at any time at less cost with personalized knowledge bases and portals)


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Memory & Metacognition Technologies in Education 

What Students Want is Not Necessarily What They Need

  • Humans retain more when something is hard to learn.

  • Humans retain more when something is painful to learn and that part of the retention of what is learned is the struggle in finding the answers.

  • Students retain more when they reason and discover something on their own.

  • Leaning from mistakes may be the best teacher.

  • Humans are prone to information overload.

  • The pace of life and learning may indeed be a killer.


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Online Education Can be More or Less Expensive than Onsite Education

  • Internet link --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/distcost.htm

  • Local Link --- ..\..\distcost.htm


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Online Education Can be More or Less Expensive than Onsite Education

  • Online Program Costs --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/DistCost.htmLocal Link --- ..\..\distcost.htm

  • The Technology Costing Methodology Project .The TCM Handbook outlines the policies and methodology utilized to calculate technology costs. The initial feedback indicates that the TCM Handbook will be a useful tool for institutions and system offices to analyze instructional technology costs for decision-making purposes.A PDF file is available for download 1.9 MB [large file] --- http://www.wiche.edu/telecom/projects/tcm/proj-products.htmLocal Link --- ..\Miscellaneous\TCM_Casebook_Final.pdf


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Building Design and Equipment Education

WebLink ---http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/thetools.htm#Design

Local Link --- ..\..\000aaa\thetools.htm


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Top e-Learning Technologies Education

E-mail predates the inception of the Internet, and was in fact a crucial tool in creating the Internet. MIT first demonstrated the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) in 1961. It allowed multiple users to log into the IBM 7094[3] from remote dial-up terminals, and to store files online on disk. This new ability encouraged users to share information in new ways. E-mail started in 1965 as a way for multiple users of a time-sharing mainframe computer to communicate. Although the exact history is murky, among the first systems to have such a facility were SDC's Q32 and MIT's CTSS.


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Email Hypermedia and File Attachments Education

  • Ability to embed graphics in Email messages.

  • Ability to play video, audio, and other multimedia files to email messages.

  • Ability to attach Excel, PowerPoint, and other learning files to email messages.


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Educational Search Databases Education

  • Yahoo and Google survived intense search engine competition.

  • Video and Book Search Engines

  • Google Books and other online libraries


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Top 10 e-Learning Technologies Education

  • PLATO originated in 1960 at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  • Internet commenced in 1969

  • "Spreadsheets in Education–The First 25 Years," by  John E Baker Director, Natural Maths [email protected]  and Stephen J Sugden School of Information Technology, Bond University [email protected] , July 24, 2003 --- http://www.sie.bond.edu.au/articles/1.1/bakersugden.pdfVisiCalc in 1979

  • World Wide Web & HTML in 1989


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Interactive Web Education

  • Distributed learning over the Internet in which students could interact with learning modules on a central server.

  • Distributed computer games and simulations

  • Instant messaging Email

  • Chat Rooms

  • MySpace and FaceBook


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Interactive Course Management Systems Education

  • Authorware

  • ToolBook

  • WebCT

  • BlackBoard

  • Moodle


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ALN and Presentation Software Education

  • Asynchronous Learning Software --- HyperCard, Owl’s Guide, Quest, Tencor, Course Buider, Training Icon EnvironmentTIE), Authorware, ToolBookhttp://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/290wp/290wp.htm

  • Presentation Software --- SPC's Harvard Graphics, Gold Disk's Astound, Asymetrix's Compel, Microsoft's PowerPoint, Macromedia's Action, Micrografx's Charisma, Just-Ask-Me, On-The-Air, Lotus Corporation's Freelance, Word Perfect's Presentations, Stanford Graphics, Special Delivery, Q/Media, Zuma Group's Curtain Call, Multimedia Design’s mPower, and others listed in Appendix 6 of Jensen and Sandlin (1994). 


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Edutainment Education

  • Streaming Media

  • Video and computer games

  • Simulation learning systems

  • Interactive games

  • Other edutainment learning systems


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Adobe Acrobat Secure PDF Files Education

Adobe Acrobat allowed word processing files to be downloaded with ability to read and search PDF files for free.

Acrobat PDF files can have different levels of security including security that prevents simple cut and paste copying of copyrighted material. Book publishers at last started putting new titles online.


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Amy Dunbar in 2001 EducationAudio ---http://www.cs.trinity.edu/~rjensen/002cpe/02start.htm#2002

  • The combination of asynchronous and synchronous materials in the WebCT environment worked well for my students. I felt closer to my students than I did in a live class. When I loaded AIM and saw my students online, I felt connected to them. Each student had an online persona that blossomed over the semester. The use of emotions in AIM helped us create bantering communication, which contributed to a less stressful learning environment

  • Thus, flexibility appears to outweigh what to the student appears to be an easier way to learn.From "Genesis of an Online Course" by Amy Dunbar Amy Dunbar, August 1, 2001 www.sba.uconn.edu/users/adunbar/genesis_of_an_online_course.pdf


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Richard Larson in 2001 Education

LARSON: You can't get further from MIT than Singapore. Singapore from here is this way [points straight down]. We use Internet2 for connectivity. There's no statistical difference in performance between distance learners and classroom learners. And when there is a difference, it favors the distance learners"Lessons e-Learned Q&A with Richard Larson from MIT," Technology Review, July 31, 2001 --- http://www.techreview.com/web/leo/leo073101.asp


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Thousands on Online Courses Education

Bob Jensen's Threads on Cross-Border (Transnational) Training and Education(Includes helpers for finding online training and education courses, certificate programs, and degree Programs) http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/crossborder.htm

Local Computer Link --- Click Here

Explosive Growth in Online Enrollments --- http://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/Crossborder.htm#OnineGrowthRates.htm


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A Tutor Half a World Away Education

Ms. Salin is part of a new wave of outsourcing to India: the tutoring of American students. Twice a week for a month now, Ms. Salin, who grew up speaking the Indian language Malayalam at home, has been tutoring Daniela in English grammar, comprehension and writing. Using a simulated whiteboard on their computers, connected by the Internet, and a copy of Daniela's textbook in front of her, she guides the teenager through the intricacies of nouns, adjectives and verbs. Saritha Rai, "A Tutor Half a World Away, but as Close as a Keyboard," The New York Times, September 7, 2005


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Sharon Lightner EducationAn Innovative Online International Accounting Course on Six Campuses Around the Worldhttp://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/\000aaa\lightner\255light.htmLocal Link --- ..\..\000aaa\lightner\255light.htm

  • Introduction

  • The Course is Globally Synchronous On the Internet

  • The Main Purposes of the Course

  • Invited Guests are Also Online

  • Technology Software Successes and Problems

  • Coordination and Course Credit Problems

  • Student Evaluations of the Course

  • Advantages and Disadvantages from a Faculty Perspective


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Where Have All the Chalk Boards Gone? Education

The Chalkboard:  A tribute to a long-standing but fading teaching and learning tool

From the Museum of History and Science at Oxford University:  Bye Bye Blackboard: From Einstein and others --- http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/blackboard/


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Virtual Skills Carry Over to Research Education

  • The Financial Accounting Standards Board recently approached Bloomfield about studying how to create financial accounting standards that will assist investors as much as possible, he quickly turned to the virtual world for answers.

  • "Theory Meets Practice Online: Researchers and academics are looking to online worlds such as Second Life to shed new light on old economic questions," by Francesca Di Meglio, Business Week, July 24, 2007 --- Click Here


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Virtual Skills Carry Over to Research Education

In fact, many economics researchers, including Bloomfield, professor of accounting at Cornell's Johnson Graduate School of Management, are using the virtual environment to test ideas involving staples of economics such as game theory, the effects of regulation, and issues involving money. Since 1989, Bloomfield has been running experiments in the lab in which he creates small game economies to study narrow issues. But when the Financial Accounting Standards Board recently approached Bloomfield about studying how to create financial accounting standards that will assist investors as much as possible, he quickly turned to the virtual world for answers.


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Virtual Skills Carry Over to Research Education

"It would be very difficult to look at the complex issues that FASB is trying to address with eight people in a laboratory playing a very simple economic game," he says. "I started looking for how I could create a more realistic economy with more players dealing with a high degree of complexity. It didn't take me long to realize that people in virtual worlds are already doing just that."


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Virtual Skills Carry Over to Research Education

At Indiana University, researcher Edward Castronova has posed the idea of creating multiple virtual economies to study the effects of different regulatory policies. At Indiana, Castronova is director of the Synthethic Worlds Initiative, a research center to study virtual worlds. "The opportunity is to conduct controlled research experiments at the level of all society, something social scientists have never been able to do before," the center's Web site notes (see BusinessWeek.com, 5/1/06, "Virtual World, Virtual Economies").


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Online Skills Carry Over into Life Education

Preparation for Lifelong LearningIt’s becoming more common for a university to either require or strongly suggest that its students take online courses as a way to prepare them for lifelong learning and job training which are both becoming increasingly online.



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2006 National Survey of Student Engagement Education

  • The 2006 NSSE survey, which is based on data from 260,000 randomly-selected first-year and senior students at 523 four-year institutions(NSSE’s companion survey, the Community College Survey of Student Engagement, focuses on two-year colleges) looks much more deeply than previous iterations of the survey did into the performance of online students.

  • The 2006 National Survey of Student Engagement for the first time offers a close look at distance education, offering provocative new data suggesting that e-learners report higher levels of engagement, satisfaction and academic challenge than their on-campus peers.


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2006 National Survey of Student Engagement Education

  • Those students who come to college less well-prepared academically or from historically underrepresented groups tend to benefit from engagement in educationally purposeful activities even more than their peers do.

  • First-year and senior students spend an average of about 13 to 14 hours per week preparing for classes, much less than what faculty members say is needed.

  • Student engagement is positively correlated to grades and persistence between the first and second year of college.

  • New students study fewer hours during their first year than they expected to when starting college.


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SCALE Experiments at U. of Illinois Education

  • Outcomes assessment of the multi-million dollar, multi-year experiments on campus at the University of Illinois regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of asynchronous learning classes vis-a-vis traditional classes.  (Listen to Dan Stone's audio and download his Powerpoint Presentation).  http://www.cs.trinity.edu/~rjensen/000cpe/00start.htm 

  • On-campus students in 30 courses comparing online versus onsite traditional sections taught by the same faculty using same learning materials.


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ALN Increased communications Education

"I learned much more than I ever had due to the high interaction between student/student and student/teacher." Survey results revealed 51% of the students reported an increase in communication with the instructor and 43% with other students. Approximately 40% of the students reported an increase in the quality of their interaction with the instructor. One professor wrote, "I believe the quality of my interactions with students was the highest I have ever experienced." Students liked "asking questions that couldn't be asked in class," "better understanding different points of view," "the ease in getting in touch with the professor," and "talking more to my peers."


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Improved access to information Education

"Information when you want/need it." Students liked having "personal control of information" and "quick-response times from peers and students." They found that "on-line testing was easy and convenient," "study material was easy to access," "material was never lost...and always available," the Web served "as a great supplement to lectures," and they could "pay more attention in class and worry less about taking notes."


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Added to learning environment Education

"It added flavor to course, broadened it beyond just the classroom."Students commented that ALN "was a new and exciting way to learn" that "added depth" to the class. It also enabled them "to be more prepared for class," gave them "a lot of time to learn out of class," and allowed them "to work at own pace." Some students believed the "on-line homework was a great experience" and that on-line quizzes were "a good way to study for exams." Survey results indicated approximately 70% of the students would like to take another course using computer conferencing. About 75% of the responding students rated their overall experience with computer conferencing good, very good, or excellent. Approximately 60% of the students reported an increase in the amount of their learning due to the use of computer conferencing.


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Facilitated the learning of computers Education

"Increased my knowledge and confidence with computers."Approximately 70% of the students indicated on the survey an increase in their familiarity with computers. Students reported "feeling less apprehensive about using computers" and thought that their ALN course provided "a good opportunity to learn more about computers."









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Dark Side EducationFaculty More Uneasy Than Students

More students are taking online college courses than ever before, yet the majority of faculty still aren’t warming up to the concept of e-learning, according to a national survey from the country’s largest association of organizations and institutions focused on online education . . . ‘We didn’t become faculty to sit in front of a computer screen,’ Elia Powers, "Growing Popularity of E-Learning, Inside Higher Ed, November 10, 2006 --- http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2006/11/10/online


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Dark Side EducationTechnology Begins to Own You

  • Burn out is an enormous problem for online faculty

  • Materials development and updating never ends

  • Keeping up with fast moving technology is frustrating

  • Keeping up with software upgrades is frustrating

  • Must have excellent tech support funding and people


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Concerns About ALN Learning Education

  • Concerns About the Explosion of ALN in Education

  • Concerns About Residency Living & Learning on Campus

  • Concerns About Impersonality and Becoming Irrevocably Orwellian

  • Concerns About Making ALN Learning Too Easy

  • Concerns About Making ALN Learning Too Hard

  • Concerns About Corporate Influences on Traditional Missions

  • Concerns About Library Services 

  • Concerns About Academic Standards and Student Ethics 

  • Concerns About Messaging Overload

  • Concerns About Faculty Efficiency and Burnout

  • Concerns About Misleading and Fraudulent Web Sites

  • Concerns About CyberPsychology

  • Concerns About Computer Services and Network Reliability

  • Concerns About Faculty Resistance to Change

  • Concerns About Effectiveness of Learning Technologies in Large Classes


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Concerns About ALN Learning Education

  • Concerns About Faculty Efficiency and Burnout

  • Concerns About Misleading and Fraudulent Web Sites

  • Concerns About CyberPsychology

  • Concerns About Computer Services and Network Reliability

  • Concerns About Faculty Resistance to Change

  • Concerns About Effectiveness of Learning Technologies in Large Classes


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The Dark Side --- Educationhttp://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/theworry.htmLocal Link ---Click Here

  • The U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act Undermines Public Access and Sharing 

  • Millions of Web Documents are Not Being Archived for Future Scholars

  • Are Universities Becoming EMOs (Educational Maintenance Organizations)?


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The Dark Side --- Educationhttp://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/theworry.htm

  • Concerns About Academic Standards, School Ethics and Student Ethics 

  • Controversies in Regulation of Distance Education

  • Barriers to Distance Education 

  • How can colleges best mix on-campus and online delivery of instruction?

  • Concerns About Faculty Resistance to Change and Mutation  Teachers Must Adapt to Changed Mindsets of Incoming Students Who Grew Up With Computers


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The Dark Side --- Educationhttp://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/theworry.htm

  • Teachers Must Adapt to Changed Mindsets of Incoming Students Who Grew Up With Computers

  • Concerns About Faculty Workloads and Burnout 

  • Online Cheating and Reduced Social Interaction 

  • Legal Concerns 

  • Email and Teaching Evaluations Place Heavy Burdens on Teachers

  • Student Concerns  .


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The Dark Side --- Educationhttp://www.trinity.edu/rjensen/000aaa/theworry.htm

  • Is your distance site operating within the law in terms of access by disabled students? Schools must demonstrate progress toward compliance

  • The Digital Divide is Real

  • Lots of Hype and Not Much Profit 

  • Institutions, Reward Structures, and Traditions That Defy Changes in Higher Education

  • Websites Failing Disabled and Handicapped Users


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The Dark Side --- EducationPossible Isolation Downsides of Online Teaching

  • Distance Educators typically report that they do not feel as much a part of a team, especially when they do most of their teaching from their homes.

  • For example, Amy Dunbar teaches tax from her home at the University of Connecticut. Online teaching increases communications with students but decreases encounters with other faculty in hallways, faculty lounges, libraries, etc.


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The Dark Side --- EducationInstructor Burnout in Distance Education

  • Distance Educators typically report greater preparation workloads from online versus onsite teaching because online learning materials must be more carefully written than onsite course notes and they must be updated to servers like Blackboard and/or Web servers.

  • Distance Educators typically report greater frequencies of burn out over time when teaching online"Exploring Burnout among University Online Instructors: An Initial Investigation, " by R. Lance Hogan and Mark A. McNight, The Internet and Higher Education,  vol. 10, no. 2, 2007). The paper is available on the Web at http://www.usi.edu/business/mamcknight/publications/INTHIG281.pdfLocal Link --- ..\Miscellaneous\Burnout.pdf


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Hogan and McNight Findings --- EducationInstructor Burnout in Distance Education

  • Emotional exhaustion subscale, high degree of depersonalization, and low degree of personal accomplishment.

  • No statistical significant differences in levels of burnout between male and female university online instructors.

  • Female university online instructors had higher levels burnout on emotional exhaustion


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Psychology of Electronic Commerce Education

The resultant maelstrom of technological products and processes is beginning to look like a runaway locomotive, or worse—more like a whole horde of runaway locomotives hurtling ahead along multidirectional, multidimensional, ever-changing networks of tangled tracks. Now and again one runs out of fuel, but by then a host of newcomers has already begun to roll. And most of us, both individually and organizationally, as well as the media, seem so caught up in this technological tsunami that we mentally push aside any small prodromes of impending, down-the-road dangers "Who’s in Control Here?" by Harold J. Leavitt, Stanford Graduate School of Business,  November, 2002


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Psychology of Electronic Commerce Education

Spending time on the Internet can have a negative effect on personal life such as reducing time spent socializing with friends says political scientist Norman Nie.

"Journal Explores Life in the Electronic Age," by Norman Nie, Stanford Graduate School of Business


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The End Education


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