Considerations on Drilling & Plugging Flowing Artesian Wells
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Considerations on Drilling & Plugging Flowing Artesian Wells. Percentage of Flowing Wells Drilled in Michigan (1997). 100. 80. 60. 40. 20. 0. Flowing. Nonflowing. 3.17. 96.83. Percent.

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Percentage of Flowing Wells Drilled in Michigan (1997)

100

80

60

40

20

0

Flowing

Nonflowing

3.17

96.83

Percent

Figure 5


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“Flowing wells (along with springs and geysers) symbolize the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

(From Groundwater, Freeze and Cherry, 1979)


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Arenac County - 1900 the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.


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ARTESIAN WELL the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

  • A WELL WITH ARTESIAN

    PRESSURE SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE

    THE WATER TO FLOW ABOVE THE

    GROUND SURFACE


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ARTESIAN WELL the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

  • A WELL THAT PENETRATES A

    CONFINED AQUIFER.

  • WATER LEVEL RISES ABOVE THE

    TOP OF THE CONFINED AQUIFER.


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GEOLOGICALLY-CONTROLLED FLOWING WELL the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

Artesian well

Recharge area for artesian aquifer

Water table well

Piezometric level

Flowing

artesian well

Ground surface

Water table

Stream

Water table aquifer

Upper confining bed

Artesian aquifer

Lower confining bed

Consolidated rock

Upper Confining layer

Lower Confining Layer


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Surface water the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

Water table

Potential line

Flow line

TOPOGRAPHICALLY – CONTROLLED FLOWING WELL

Unconfined aquifer condition


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Unconfined Aquifer the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

Recharge Area

Natural Discharge Area (Stream, Lake)


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OFTEN LOCATED NEAR GROUND WATER DISCHARGE ZONES… the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

AT LOWER ELEVATIONS NEAR STREAMS OR LAKES.


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WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DEFINES AN “ARTESIAN” WELL? the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

  • A well having a static water level at the top of the aquifer.

  • A well having a static water level above the top of the aquifer.

  • A well constructed by a well driller of Artesian nationality.

  • A well having a static water level above the top of the casing.


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Well Construction Code the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

R 325.1621(3)(c):

“A well shall be constructed, equipped, and operated to prevent unnecessary discharges from flowing wells.”

R 325.1638(1):

“A well shall be grouted to protect the aquifer, prevent erosion, and confine the flow within the casing.”


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SPOOL HOLD-DOWN ASSEMBLY* the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

WELL CAP

ELECTRICAL CONDUIT

(WIRING NOT SHOWN)

FLOW CONTROL USING FLOWING WELL PITLESS UNIT

(SPOOL TYPE)

SURFACE

HOLD-DOWN PIPE

CABLE SEALS

SPOOL WITH O-RING SEALS

WATER SERVICE LINE

WATER CONFINED IN CASING

FLOW STOPPED BELOW FROST LINE

* SEE MANUFACTURERS’ SPECIFICATIONS FOR RATED PRESSURE (PSI) FOR HOLD-DOWN ASSEMBLY.


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You CAN NOT allow a well to flow without a the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.deviation from the local health department.


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KEEP THE LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT IN THE LOOP!! the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

USE YOUR WATER WELL AND PUMP RECORD TO EXPLAIN FLOWING WELL CONSTRUCTION ISSUES


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the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.BENEFICIAL USE”

Maintain pond levels for:

IRRIGATION

FISH REARING

WILDLIFE

ENHANCEMENT

RECREATION

OTHER

COMMERICIAL

USE

FIRE

PROTECTION


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Wasting Michigan’s Groundwater Resources the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.


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“BENEFICIAL USE” the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

Supply water for:

HEATING

COOLING

INDUSTRIAL

PROCESS

POWER

GENERATION


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DEVIATION – RULE 113 the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

FLOWING WELL DISCHARGES

FLOW CONTROL NOT PRACTICAL

OR

FLOW CONTROL WILL CAUSE SAND OR TURBIDITY IN WATER

OR

DISCHARGE IS FOR BENEFICIAL USE


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R 325.1638(2): FLOW CONTROL METHODS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

VALVED PIPE CONNECTION

WATERTIGHT PUMP CONNECTION

PITLESS ADAPTER

OTHER APPROVED METHODS

RECEIVING TANK

PACKER


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FLOW DISCHARGE PIPING AT WELL HEAD the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

(Discharge permitted with written deviation from local health department official)

SEALED ELECTRICAL CONDUIT

WATERTIGHT WELL CAP

GATE VALVE (HANDLE REMOVED)

SCREENED OUTLET (IF PUMPING RATE HIGHER THAN WELL FLOW RATE)

AIR - GAP

2 X DIAMETER

OF VALVE OUTLET

PITLESS ADAPTER

WATER SERVICE LINE

DRAIN TO DITCH, LAKE, RIVER, POND, OR SURFACE

DRAIN PIPE SIZE MINIMUM OF TWICE DIAMETER OF WELL DISCHARGE PIPE


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FLOW CONTROL USING ELEVATED FLOW TANK the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

(Discharge permitted with written deviation

from local health department official)

FLOW RATE

CONTROL VALVE

DISCHARGE LINE TO BUILDING

NONPRESSURIZED STORAGE TANK

PRESSURE TANK

(DIAPHRAGM OR

BLADDER TYPE)

JET OR CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

UNION

PRESSURE SWITCH

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

FROM WELL

GATE VALVE

AIR GAP

(PREVENTS CROSS-CONNECTION)

FLOW DRAIN LINE

AIR GAP MUST BE AT LEAST TWICE THE DIAMETER OF THE FLOW TANK DISCHARGE LINE

DRAIN PIPE MUST BE AT LEAST TWICE THE DIAMETER OF THE TANK DISCHARGE PIPE


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FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

-NONBENEFICIAL DISCHARGE-

  • WASTES RESOURCE

  • REDUCES ARTESIAN HEAD

  • OVERLOADS STORM SEWERS & DITCHES

  • CREATES ARTIFICIAL STREAM FLOW AND “WETLANDS”

  • ALTERS NATURAL GROUNDWATER FLOW


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FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

-LOSS OF CONFINING LAYER-

  • FLOW BREAKOUT AROUND CASING

  • REDUCTION OF ARTESIAN HEAD

  • ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF UNCONFINED AQUIFER

  • EROSION & PROPERTY DAMAGE

  • DAMAGE TO RECEIVING WATERS


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UNAPPROVED ANNULAR FLOW DISCHARGE PIPING the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

WATERTIGHT WELL CAP

SURFACE

LAKE OR STREAM

GRAVEL POCKET

PITLESS ADAPTER

DRAIN PIPE

WATER LINE TO HOME

FLOW FROM UNSEALED ANNULUS DIVERTED INTO DRAIN

(SHOULD HAVE BEEN GROUTED TO STOP FLOW)

UNSEALED ANNULUS

CONFINING LAYER NOT SEALED

(CORRECTION NEEDED TO SEAL ANNULUS)


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FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

-DISCHARGE PIPING HAZARDS-

  • BURIED UNPROTECTED SUCTION LINES

  • SUBMERGED INLETS OR OTHER CROSS-CONNECTIONS

CAN RESULT IN DRINKING

WATER CONTAMINATION


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WATERTIGHT WELL CAP the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

NONPRESSURIZED BURIED LINE

(POSSIBLE SUCTION LINE)

SURFACE

CHECK VALVE

(DOES NOT PROVIDE POSITIVE PROTECTION AGAINST BACKSIPHONAGE)

UNAPPROVED PITLESS ADAPTER CONNECTION (GASKETS OF CLAMP-ON PITLESS ADAPTERS MUST BE PRESSURIZED BY PUMP)

WATER SERVICE LINE

UNAPPROVED BURIED FLOW

DISCHARGE PIPING WITH CHECK VALVE


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10 GPM FLOW DISCHARGE WASTES: the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

14,400 GALLONS PER DAY

5.25 MILLION GALLONS PER YEAR!


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Fire-Service Test – Arcadia, Manistee County the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS OCCUR WHEN:

5 STREAMS FROM A SINGLE FLOWING WELL

(FROM LEVERETT, ET AL. - FLOWING WELLS AND MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES IN THE MIDDLE AND NORTHERN PORTIONS OF THE SOUTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN, U..S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 1907)


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RECOMMENDATIONS WHEN DRILLING IN KNOWN FLOWING WELL AREAS: the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

  • Plan ahead – In case something goes wrong!

  • Schedule aquifer penetration appropriately.

AVOID LATE NIGHT WELL COMPLETION


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IN KNOWN FLOWING WELL AREAS: the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

CEMENT CASING INTO CONFINING LAYER BEFORE PENETRATING ARTESIAN AQUIFER

CONFINING LAYER

ARTESIAN AQUIFER


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  • USE STATEWIDE GROUNDWATER DATABASE (WELLOGIC & SCANNED LOGS) the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

  • AND

  • WELL PERMITS TO:

  • IDENTIFY FLOWING WELL AREAS

  • NOTIFY PROPERTY OWNERS CONTRACTORS

  • SUGGEST WELL CONSTRUCTION METHODS

  • PREVENT FUTURE PROBLEMS.

Without the Internet, you are at a disadvantage!


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FLOWING WELL PROBLEMS OCCUR WHEN: the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

CONTRACTORS DRILL IN UNFAMILIAR AREAS

CONTRACTORS ARE NOT PREPARED TO DEAL WITH HIGH VOLUME FLOW OR HIGH ARTESIAN HEAD

(Poor choice of drilling method)


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UPWARD LEAKAGE AROUND UNGROUTED CASING the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

STATIC WATER LEVEL

UNCONFINED AQUIFER

CONFINING LAYER

CONFINED AQUIFER

UPWARD LEAKAGE


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LEAKAGE FROM UNGROUTED ANNULUS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

WATER ON SURFACE

BRIDGED SOIL AROUND UPPER CASING

UNCONFINED AQUIFER

CONFINING LAYER

WATER FLOWING UPWARD IN UNGROUTED ANNULUS AROUND CASING

CONFINED (ARTESIAN)AQUIFER

FLOW FOLLOWS PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE


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Alcona County Flowing Well – Case Study the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

Recommendation:

Carefully document steps taken

HELPS PROCESSING OF INSURANCE CLAIM

PICTURES HELP


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Factors to Consider the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

  • KILL OR SAVE WELL

  • FLOW RATE & PRESSURE

  • LOCATION OF BREAKOUT

  • SOURCE OF FLOW

  • DEGREE OF EROSION

  • WATER DISPOSAL

  • WATER REQUIREMENTS


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EVALUATE SITE SAFETY the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

TURBID DISCHARGE = UNSAFE

(BOREHOLE EROSION OCCURRING)

CLEAR DISCHARGE = SAFE


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Cloudy Flow Breakout Outside Casing the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.


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WATER SAMPLING MAY BE USED TO DETERMINE SOURCE OF FLOW the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

WATER INSIDE CASING

WATER OUTSIDE CASING

  • PARTIAL CHEMICAL INDICATORS:

    • HARDNESS

    • IRON

    • CONDUCTIVITY


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Cloudy Flow Breakout Near Structure’s Foundation the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.


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CORRECTING FLOW BREAKOUTS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

  • DRIVE LARGER PIPE AROUND CASING

  • JET TREMIE PIPE(S) INTO ANNULUS AND PUMP CEMENT GROUT

  • PUMP CEMENT GROUT DOWN CASING


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BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

WHEN DRIVING OUTER CASING…

USE PIPE MINIMUM 2 IN. LARGER THAN BOREHOLE OR WASHOUT

DRIVE PIPE INTO CONFINING LAYER


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ESTIMATE VOLUME OF MATERIAL ERODED FROM BOREHOLE the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

USE TO DETERMINE VOLUME OF PLUGGING MATERIAL NEEDED


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BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

ESTIMATE THE ANNULAR FLOW RATE…

PUMP PLUGGING MATERIAL AT HIGHER RATE THAN FLOW RATE


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HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

Pressure at bottom of borehole due to weight of fluid column.

FORMULA

HP (PSI) = SLURRY WEIGHT (LBS./GAL)

X .052 X DEPTH


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BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

USE PLUGGING MATERIAL WITH ENOUGH WEIGHT TO OVERCOME HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF FLOW


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BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

PLUGGING MATERIAL

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE FROM FLOW


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DENSITY COMPARISON the presence and mystery of subsurface water, and as such they have always evoked considerable public interest”.

VS

BENTONITE

(20-30% solids)

9.4 -10.4 lbs./gal

NEAT CEMENT

(65% solids)

15 lbs./gal


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Shows Influence of Depth and Artesian Head on Grout Material Suitability

SHADED AREAS SHOW CONDITIONS WHERE CERTAIN GROUTS ARE NOT HEAVY ENOUGH TO OVERCOME THE HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF THE FLOW


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BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR FLOW BREAKOUTS Suitability

ATTACK FLOW AT SOURCE…

NOT ABOVE

PLACE TREMIE PIPES INTO FLOWING ZONE


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LOWERING HEAD WHILE CEMENTING

PUMP DISCHARGE

GROUTER

FLOW OUTSIDE CASING LOWERED BY PUMPING

TREMIE PIPE FOR CEMENTING

CONFINING LAYER

ARTESIAN AQUIFER

HIGH CAPACITY PUMP


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STOPPING ANNULAR FLOW

NEAT CEMENT

GROUTER

PIPES PENETRATE CONFINING LAYER

1” TREMIE PIPES ON SIDES OF CASING (JETTED INTO PLACE)

CONFINING LAYER

CONFINEDAQUIFER



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CATASTROPHIC FLOW BREAKOUT PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS

-Characteristics-

TECHNICALLY CHALLENGING – NO TWO ARE ALIKE

COSTLY (NON-PROFIT WELL) – NO STATE FUNDING AVAILABLE

STRESSFUL!


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CATASTROPHIC FLOW BREAKOUT PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS

-ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN-

SEDIMENT DEPOSITION INTO SURFACE WATERS

  • SMOTHERS FISH SPAWNING BEDS

  • DESTROYS MACROINVERTEBRATE HABITAT (MAYFLIES, CADDISFLIES, WORMS, ETC.)

  • FILLS IN STREAM BOTTOM – CHANGES VELOCITY

  • ALTERS WATER QUALITY (CHLORIDES, SULFATES, TDS)


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FLOW BREAKOUT PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS

DISCHARGED INTO

NEARBY DRAIN


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…AFTER PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS


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1997 HILLSDALE COUNTY FLOW BREAKOUT PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS

-COSTS-

Cementing subcontractor $26,292.82

Calcium chloride $111.30

Portland cement $2,317.29

Grout pipes, valves & bent. chips $2128.34

Safety fencing $33.21

Permit to close road $10.00

Water trucks & labor $1,950.00

Miscellaneous $481.58

Total = $33,324.54


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FLOW BREAKOUT PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS



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INFLATABLE PACKER DESIGN PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS

AIR LINE TO SURFACE

SHALE PACKERS

HEAVY DUTY INNER TUBE

CASING


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FIRST STEP: PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUS

GET THE “FLOW” UNDER CONTROL.

INSTALL CASING EXTENSION


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SPECIAL GROUT PLACEMENT PIPES PLACED IN ANNULUSMETHODS ARE NECESSARY.

NEAT CEMENT IS REQUIRED.

TREMIE PIPE.

WELL CASING RIZER.



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Reducing the area to be plugged in fractures or lost circulation zones using aggregate.


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INITIAL WATER RETURN. circulation zones using aggregate.

NEAT CEMENT RETURN.


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Flowing Well Handbook circulation zones using aggregate.


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