Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities
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Chapter 3: Ecosystems and Communities. Georgia Performance Standards: Relate environmental conditions to successional changes in ecosystems. Determine how organisms depend on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems.

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Chapter 3: Ecosystems and Communities

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Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

Chapter 3:Ecosystems and Communities

  • Georgia Performance Standards:

  • Relate environmental conditions to successional changes in ecosystems.

  • Determine how organisms depend on one another and the flow of energy and

  • matter within their ecosystems.

  • Define population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

Essential Questions:

EQ: How does the change in temperature and climate affect life in different ecosystems and communities?

EQ: How are ecosystems organized?

EQ: If you had to design another biosphere on another planet, what would you include?


3 1 the role of climate warm up

How would you describe your climate, or the average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation where you live?

Does your area receive a great deal of precipitation—rain and snow—or is your area very dry?

1. When does the area in which you live experience the lowest temperatures? Does the temperature ever get below freezing? If so, how often does this occur?

2.When does the area in which you live have the highest temperatures? About how high is the highest temperature?

3.How often does it rain where you live? Is one season rainier than the others?

4.Does it ever snow where you live? If so, what is the heaviest snowfall you can remember?

5.What are two factors that may affect climate?

3–1 The Role of Climate  Warm-up


3 1 the role of climate

Weather is the day-to-day condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.

Climate, on the other hand, refers to the average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region.

3-1: The Role of Climate


The greenhouse effect

Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range

These gases allow solar radiation to enter the biosphere but slows down the loss of heat to space

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect

Section 4-1

Sunlight

Some heat

escapes

into space

Greenhouse

gases trap

some heat

Atmosphere

Earth’s surface


The effect of latitude on climate

As a result of differences in latitude and thus the angle of heating, Earth has three main climate zones: polar, temperate, and tropical.

The Effect of Latitude on Climate


Climate zones

Climate Zones:

  • Polar - cold areas where the sun’s rays strike Earth at a very low angle.

  • Temperate - sit between the polar zones and the tropics.

  • Tropical- receive direct or nearly direct sunlight year-round, making the climate almost always warm


Heat transport in the biosphere

Heat Transport in the Biosphere

  • The unequal heating of Earth’s surface drives winds and ocean currents, which transport heat throughout the biosphere.

  • The upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air create air currents, or winds, that move heat throughout the atmosphere, from regions of sinking air to regions of rising air .

  • Continents and other landmasses can also affect winds and ocean currents


Warm up eq what shapes an ecosystem

Organisms not only live together in ecological communities, but they also constantly interact with one another.

These interactions, which include predation and competition, help shape the ecosystem in which they live.

Based on your own experiences, define predation. Give one example of predation.

2. Based on your own experiences, define competition. Give one example of competition.

Warm-up: EQ: What Shapes an Ecosystem?


What shapes an ecosystem

What Shapes an Ecosystem?

  • Biotic and Abiotic Factors

  • Niche

  • Community Interactions

  • Ecological Succession


Abiotic biotic factors

Abiotic factors are nonliving factors

Temperature

Humidity

Precipitation

Wind

Nutrient availability

Soil type

Sunlight

Biotic factors are living factors

Ecological community

Ex: bull frog, what is eats, other organisms with which it interacts.

Abiotic & Biotic Factors:


Abiotic biotic factors1

Abiotic & Biotic Factors:

  • Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the organism lives.

  • The area where an organism lives is called its habitat. A habitat includes biotic and abiotic factors.


Niche

Niche

  • Habitat is to address as niche is to occupation

  • A niche is an organism’s role or job in an ecosystem.

  • Ex: an organisms place in the food web.(earthworm-decomposer)


Community interactions

Community Interactions

  • Competition, predation, and various forms of symbiosis, can powerfully affect an ecosystem.


Competition

Competition

  • Organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecologicalresource in the same place at the same time.

  • Direct competition in nature often results in a winner and a loser—with the losing organism failing to survive

  • Competitive exclusion principle - no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time.


Predation

Predation

  • An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism.

  • Ex: Anglerfish on Finding Nemo.


Symbiosis

Symbiosis

  • Any relationship in which two species live closely together

    • Mutualism – both species benefits

      • Ex: bee and flower

    • Commensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither hurt nor harmed.

      • Barnacles on whale

    • Parasitism – one species benefits and the other is harmed

      • Flea on dog


Checkpoint

Checkpoint!!!

  • How are the three types of symbiotic relationships different? How are they similar?


Ecological succession

Ecological Succession

  • Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances.

  • As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community.

  • Ecological succession - predictable changes that occur in a community over time.


Primary succession

On land, succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists.

The first species to populate the area are called pioneer species.

occurs on the surfaces formed as volcanic eruptions build new islands or cover the land with lava rock or volcanic ash.

occurs on bare rock exposed when glaciers melt.

Primary Succession:


Secondary succession

When a disturbance of some kind changes an existing community without removing the soil.

Land cleared for farming

Wildfires and other natural disasters.

Secondary Succession:


Checkpoint1

Checkpoint!!!

  • What is the main abiotic factor that distinguishes primary from secondary succession?


Land biomes

A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic assemblage of plants and animals.

Characteristics:

Climate and Microclimate

Ten different biomes

Tropical rain forest

Tropical savanna

Tropical dry forest

Desert

Temperate grassland

Temperate Woodland & Shrubland

Temperate Forest

Northwestern coniferous forest

Boreal Forest

Tundra

 Land Biomes


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

Figure 4-17 The World’s Major Land Biomes

Temperate grassland

Tropical rain forest

Temperate forest

Tundra

Northwestern

coniferous forest

Mountains and

ice caps

Tropical dry forest

Desert

Temperate woodland

and shrubland

Tropical savanna

Boreal forest

(Taiga)


Terrestrial land biomes

Terrestrial/land Biomes

  • Tundra

  • abiotic factors:

  • cold temp, Poor soil, low rain, long severe winters, permafrost

  • b. biotic factors: least diverse biome, lichens, mosses, small plants, polar bears, reindeer, caribou, arctic foxes, arctic hares

Climatograms- show annual precipitation & Temperature

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Figure 20 25h tundra

Figure 20.25h Tundra


Major biomes

Major Biomes

2. Taiga (Boreal Forests)

p. 104-climatogram &look at map

  • abiotic factors:

  • summers mild

  • winters long, snowy, cold

  • most spongy areas called bogs

  • Acidic soil

    b. biotic factors:

    evergreen trees, moose, bears, elk, wolves, porcupines, hares, bobcats

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Taiga boreal forest

Taiga-Boreal Forest


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

3. Temperate Deciduous forests

-climatogram & look at map

abiotic:

moderate rainfall

summer moderate

Winter cold

Rich soil

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?

WHERE WE LIVE!!!!

  • b. biotic: (lots of diversity)

  • deciduous trees

  • maples, elms, oaks,

  • shrubs, varied

  • animal life: squirrels, foxes, bears, wildcats, salamanders, snakes, lizards, rabbits, chipmunks


Figure 20 25f temperate deciduous forest

Figure 20.25f Temperate deciduous forest


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

4. Temperate Grasslands

“The Prairies”

abiotic:

Moderate rain

central part of country

warm spring, scorching dry seasons,

winters can be snowy

biotic:

rich soil so lots of grasses- fires help

Treeless

wheat, oats, barley, corn,

bison, antelope, prairie dogs, coyotes, badgers

p.102-climatogram & look at map

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

Grasslands


Figure 50 25e temperate grassland

Figure 50.25e Temperate grassland


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

5.Temperate woodland/shrubland

(aka) Chaparral

Pg. 102 climatogram & look at map

Abiotic:

  • mod. Rain

  • Rich soil

  • No trees

    Biotic: shrubs, coyotes, mt. Lions, bobcats, deer, rabbits, squirrels

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Figure 50 25d chaparral

Figure 50.25d Chaparral


Figure 50 25dx chaparral

Figure 50.25dx Chaparral


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

  • 6. Tropical Savanna:

  • special type of grassland

  • a. Abiotic

  • warm all year

  • Clay soil

  • b. Biotic

  • Do have some trees

  • animals: zebra, antelopes, gazelles, elephants, wildebeest, giraffes

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Figure 50 25b savanna

Figure 50.25b Savanna


Figure 50 25bx savanna

Figure 50.25bx Savanna


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

7. Tropical Rain forest

abiotic:

Lots of rain

hot temperature

Poor soil

b. biotic:

Highest diversity here

Trees in layers/zones

vines, ferns, large flowering trees, insects, birds, monkeys, snakes, lizards, jaguars, panthers

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Figure 50 25a tropical forests

Figure 50.25a Tropical forests


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

8. Tropical Dry forest

abiotic:

Mild temp

Rich soil

Rain seasonal

b. biotic:

Deciduous trees

Tigers

Monkeys

Elephants

rhinos

Pg. 100 climatogram & look at map

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

9. Desert

abiotic:

Sandy

rainfall: less than 20 cm

hot, dry regions

Poor soil

b. biotic: cacti, insects, birds, iguanas, gila monsters, horned lizards, kangaroo rats, scorpions, spiders, snakes

Moderate diversity-nocturnal animals

Pg. 101 climatogram & look at map

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Figure 50 25c deserts

Figure 50.25c Deserts


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

  • Northwestern Coniferous forest:

    (aka Temperate rain forest)

    Abiotic:

  • High rain fall

  • Summer mild; winter cool

  • Soil is acidic & rocky

    Biotic: redwoods, flowering shrubs, bears, elk, deer, beavers, owls, bobcats

    Pg. 103 climatogram & look at map-Northern Pacific coast of U.S.

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Figure 20 25g coniferous forests

Figure 20.25g Coniferous forests


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

1. Marine:

Abiotic: salt water, distribution of life dependent on water temperature and light

Biotic: plankton, starfish, whales, sharks, squid, rays

2. Freshwater:

Abiotic: lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, contain little salt, life distribution is dependent on dissolved oxygen content

Biotic: algae, catfish, carp, bass, trout, mosses, flowering lilies, frogs

What kinds of adaptations would the plants & animals of this biome have?


Aquatic ecosystems

Determined primarily by the

Depth

Flow

Temperature

Chemistry of the underlying water

Grouped according to the abiotic factors that affect them

Aquatic Ecosystems:


Figure 50 23 examples of marine biomes

Figure 50.23 Examples of marine biomes


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

The shore is lined with grasses

that provide shelter and nesting

places for birds and other

organisms.

Frogs lay eggs in the shallow

water near shore.The eggs

hatch in the water as tadpoles

and move to the land as adults.

The roots of water lilies

cling to the pond bottom,

while their leaves, on long

flexible stems, float on the

surface.

Plankton and the organisms that

feed on them live near the surface

where there is enough sunlight for

photosynthesis. Microscopic algae

are among the most important

producers.

Fish share the pond

with turtles and other

animals. Many of

them feed on insects

at the water’s edge.

The bottom of the pond is

inhabited by decomposers and

other organisms that feed on

particles drifting down from the

surface.

Freshwater Pond Ecosystem

Section 4-4

Spoonbill

Duck

Water

lilies

Frog

Dragonfly

Mosquito

larvae

Duckweed

Phytoplankton

Snail

Pickerel

Diving

beetle

Trout

Hydra

Crayfish

Benthic

crustaceans

Snail

Go to Section:


Freshwater ecosystems

Flowing-water ecosystems

Ex: rivers, streams, creeks, brooks.

Originate in mountains or hills, and often spring from an underground water source.

Standing water ecosystems

Ex: Lakes and ponds

H2O circulation helps distribute heat, oxygen, and nutrients.

Plankton, phytoplankton, and zooplankton

Freshwater Ecosystems


Freshwater wetlands

An ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year.

Water is either flowing or standing, and a mix of fresh and salt water.

Breeding grounds for insects, fish, and other aquatic animals, amphibians, and migratory birds.

Three main types:

Bogs

Marshes

Swamps

Freshwater Wetlands


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

The shore is lined with grasses

that provide shelter and nesting

places for birds and other

organisms.

Frogs lay eggs in the shallow

water near shore.The eggs

hatch in the water as tadpoles

and move to the land as adults.

The roots of water lilies

cling to the pond bottom,

while their leaves, on long

flexible stems, float on the

surface.

Plankton and the organisms that

feed on them live near the surface

where there is enough sunlight for

photosynthesis. Microscopic algae

are among the most important

producers.

Fish share the pond

with turtles and other

animals. Many of

them feed on insects

at the water’s edge.

The bottom of the pond is

inhabited by decomposers and

other organisms that feed on

particles drifting down from the

surface.

Freshwater Pond Ecosystem

Section 4-4

Spoonbill

Duck

Water

lilies

Frog

Dragonfly

Mosquito

larvae

Duckweed

Phytoplankton

Snail

Pickerel

Diving

beetle

Trout

Hydra

Crayfish

Benthic

crustaceans

Snail

Go to Section:


Estuaries

Wetlands formed where rivers meet the sea.

Mixture of fresh and salt water.

Affected by the rise and fall of ocean tides.

Many are shallow.

Estuary food webs differ:

Most primary production is not consumed by herbivores

Much of that organic material enters the food web as detritus

Spawning grounds for many fish and shellfish

Types:

Salt marshes = temperate zone estuaries that are dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low-tide line, and by seagrasses under water.

Mangrove swamps = coastal wetlands that are widespread across tropical regions.

Salt-tolerant trees (mangroves)

Spawning grounds

Ex: Florida’s Everglades National Park

Estuaries


Marine ecosystems

Marine Ecosystems

  • Classified by photicand aphoticzones.

  • Oceans are divided into zones based on the depth an distance from shore

  • Each zone supports distinct ecological communities.

    • Intertidal zone

    • Coastal ocean

    • Open ocean

    • Benthic zone ???


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

Intertidal Zone:

Characterized by all areas exposed to fluctuations in tidal height.

Different types of communities.

One type of wetland

Specialized vegetation

Coastal Ocean:

Extends from the low-tide mark to the outer edge of the continental shelf

Rich in plankton

Coral Reefs = animals whose hard, calcium carbonate skeletons make up their primary structure.

Coral animals live in symbiosis with algae that lives in the coral reef.


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

Open Ocean:

Includes all the water and is a major habitat for phytoplankton and zooplankton, and highly motile marine invertebrates, fish, and mammals.

Aphotic & photic zones

Benthic Zone:

The seafloor

Characterized by communitites of invertebrates and fish

May include photosynthetic organisms (depending on depth)


Chapter 3 ecosystems and communities

Figure 4-17 Zones of a Marine Ecosystem

Section 4-4

land

Photic zone

200m

1000m

Coastal

ocean

4000m

Aphotic zone

Open

ocean

6000m

Ocean

trench

10,000m

Continental

shelf

Continental slope and

continental rise

Abyssal

plain

Go to Section:


Checkpoint2

Checkpoint!!!

  • How might the damming of a river affect an estuary at the river’s mouth?

  • In general, temperature is an important abiotic factor shaping biomes on land, but it is less important in the ocean. In the ocean, light is an important abiotic factor, but it is less important on land. Explain why these factors differ in importance on land and in the sea.


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