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Chapter 15 Puerperium and Lactation AVS 222. Puerperium. The period after parturition when reproductive tract repairs itself and returns to its non-pregnant condition (Uterine involution) Become prepared for another pregnancy

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Chapter 15 Puerperium and Lactation AVS 222

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Chapter 15 puerperium and lactation avs 222 l.jpg

Chapter 15 Puerperium and LactationAVS 222


Puerperium l.jpg

Puerperium

  • The period after parturition when reproductive tract repairs itself and returns to its non-pregnant condition (Uterine involution)

  • Become prepared for another pregnancy

  • Begins immediately after parturition and recovery period varies among species

  • Short and smooth recovery period is desirable


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Events of Puerperium

  • Myometrium contraction and expulsion of lochia

  • Endometrial repair

  • cyclcity:

  • Elimination of bacterial contamination


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Stage 1:Myometrium contraction and expulsion of lochia


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Stage 2 & 3: Endometrial repairResumption of ovarian function

  • Necrosis of caruncular tissues

  • Sloughing of the caruncular tissues

  • Reorganization of uterine endometruim

  • First postpartum ovulation


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Stage 4:Elimination of bacterial contamination

  • Continuation of uterine contraction

  • Rise in Estradiol and increase in leukocytes

  • High degree of


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Lactation


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The Mammary Gland

• Exocrine gland; common to all mammals

• Function: nourish the neonate

- Food source: fat, protein, sugar (CHO),

vitamins, minerals, water

- Protection: immunoglobulins


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The Mammary Gland

  • Loosely considered part of the reproductive system:

  • Serves a “reproductive function”; nourishment of the neonate = survival of species.

  • Relies on same endocrine (hormonal) support for development and function.

  • Example: gonadal steroids, prolactin, etc.


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The Mammary Gland

Embryo Origin:

• The mammary gland is a skin gland


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The Mammary Gland

Secretory Tissues:

• Glandular; secreting tissue =

– Alveoli:

– Duct system; lined by epithelial cells

– Lobules & lobes; clusters of alveolar tissue

supported by connective tissue


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The Mammary Gland

Alveolus:

– basic secretory unit; lined by epithelial cells

which synthesize and/or secrete:

• lipid - triglycerides & free fatty acids (FFA)

• protein-

• lactose–

• minerals & vitamins- Ca, P, K; Vits. A, B, C, D

• water


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Milk Synthesis

• Milk synthesis is dependent on:

– no. secreting cells

– supply of milk precursor

– milking frequency

No. secreting cells is dependent on:

– genetics

– endocrine support for mammogenesis


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Blood Components

Blood Flow (cattle)

Example:

What volume of blood would a 1400 lb. Holstein pump per day?

1400 lb. Cow ~ .9 liters/ heart stroke

Volume/day = .9 x 70 strokes/min = 63 liters/min

63 liters/min x 1440 min/day = 90,720 liters/day

= ~ 22,600 gal/day


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Blood Components

Blood Flow (cattle)

• Volume of blood/ volume of milk synthesized =

(this is an approximation; actual ratio is

affected by stage of lactation, efficiency, etc.)


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Steroid Hormones and Mammogenesis

  • Estrogens:

  • – follicle, placenta,

  • • Progesterone:

  • – corpus luteum, placenta,

  • • Corticoids:

  • – adrenal cortex


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Steroid Hormones and Mammogenesis

• Estrogens (E2) (follicle, placenta)

1)

2)

3) synergize with progesterone & prolactin to

stimulate protein synthesis and duct growth


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Steroid Hormones and Mammogenesis

• Progesterone (P4) (corpus luteum, placenta)

1)stimulates lobulo-alveolar growth– retards milk synthesis

2)retards synthesis of enzymes (a-lactalbumin) necessary for lactogenesis in the prepartum mammary gland


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Lactogenesis; Cortisol

• Action of cortisol:( from adrenal cortex)

(dexamethasone is synthetic cort.)

1) synthesis stimulated by maternal, fetal ACTH

essential to lactogenesis (adrenalectomy > nolactogenesis)

2)


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Mammogenesis

(Mammary Growth and Development)

• Placental E2 + luteal P4 =

– duct development

– lobulo-alveolar development

– suppression of milk synthesis

(P4 suppresses

-lactalbumin; lactose synthesis


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Mammogenesis

(Mammary Growth and Development)

• Action of cortisol + PRL:

– increase PRL receptor synthesis

– increase protein transcription/translation

• cortisol is permissive to action of PRL


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Lactogenesis

(Milk Synthesis)

  • • How does P4 retard milk synthesis in the nonlactating mammary gland?

  • Blocks glucocorticoid (cortisol) receptors

  • • Cortisol + PRL stimulates synthesis of PRL receptors on mammary cells

    • P4blocks induction of PRL receptors

  • • Retards synthesis of a-lactalbumin, casein mRNA

  • • Retards casein, a-alactalbumin, lactose synthesis

    • thus, retards milk synthesis


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    Endocrine Glands Supporting

    Mammary Function

    Posterior pituitary (protein hormones):

    Oxytocin

    • Synthesized in the hypothalmus

    • Ttransferred to post. pit.

    • Secreted into blood > acts on myoepithelial cells

    • Contraction of myoepithelial, smooth muscle


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    Endocrine Glands Supporting

    Mammary Function

    • • increases gluconeogenesis

    • • increases blood glucose

    • increases efficiency of

    • production (greater lbs. of

    • milk/ lb. DMI)

    • GH (STH, BST):

    – increases milk yield

    Action:


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    Endocrine Glands Supporting

    Mammary Function

    Pancreas (islets of Langerhans; protein hormones)

    (responsive to blood glucose concentration)

    Glucagon (alpha cells):

    • • increases lipolysis

    • • increases glycogenolysis

    • • depresses cellular glucose uptake

    • • catabolic to adipose, muscle, liver tissue

    • • increases blood glucose concentration


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    Lactogenesis

    • Lactogenesis = initiation of milk synthesis

    – initiated in the E2/P4 “primed” mammary

    gland when:

    • corpus luteum regresses

    • P4 declines

    • cortisol increases

    • PRL, GH increase

    – these circumstances occur at parturition


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