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L2 Animal Diversity Aims of the module Survey animal life, from protozoa to mammals, with emphasis on the evolutionary forces that have created this diversity Demonstrate fundamental unity of animal life, in terms of mechanisms that organise body plans

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L2 Animal Diversity

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L2 Animal Diversity


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Aims of the module

  • Survey animal life, from protozoa to mammals, with emphasis on the evolutionary forces that have created this diversity

  • Demonstrate fundamental unity of animal life, in terms of mechanisms that organise body plans

  • Illustrate the adaptations of animals to different lifestyles in different habitats

  • Examine the causes of mass extinctions and new waves of adaptive radiation, and analyse the interactions of human beings with other animals


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Overview of lectures 1-3

  • Coping with animal diversity

  • Classification and animal evolution

  • Origins of animals


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http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/


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Species Scape

Organisms drawn proportional to number of species in each group


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Naming species

  • Common names

    (e.g., lion, löwe)

  • Scientific names

    (e.g., Panthera leo)


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Linnaeus

  • Universal scientific naming system

  • Uses international language of science (in 1700’s this was Latin)

  • Each species has a binomial name


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How to use names

  • First name is the genus or generic name and starts with a capital letter, e.g. Homo

  • Second name, the species epithet, starts with a lower case letter, e.g., sapiens

  • The two together are either underlined (Homosapiens) or in italics (Homo sapiens)


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Names can indicate relationship, and can be descriptive

  • Homo sapiens (modern man)

  • Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man)

  • Homo erectus (upright man)

  • Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)


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Names can tell us about relationships

Cherie Booth


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Name changes matter

Cherie Booth

Cherie Blair


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Name changes matter

Jonathon Roughgarden =

Joan Roughgarden

23,200 hits

32,600 hits


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Names can change…Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider)

Rana fusca Schneider

1802 Ranatyphonia Sonnini & Latreille

1803 Ranatyphonia Daudin

1824 Ranasibilatrix Wied

1826 Leptodactylustyphonius Fitzinger

1841 Cystignathustyphonius Dumeril & Bibron

1843 Leptodactylustyphonius Fitzinger

1858 Cystignathusfuscus Günther

1882 Leptodactylustyphonius Boulenger

1927 Leptodactylussibilatrix Müller

1935 Leptodactylussibilatrix Parker

1968 Leptodactylusfuscus Heyer


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Birds of the Belgian Congo

  • AMNH expedition of 1909-1915 lists 11,131 birds

  • 8,827 of these don’t appear in modern bird lists

  • Either massive extinction (or faunal turnover) of African birds, or…

  • the names have changed since last century


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Stegomyia aegypti(yellow fever mosquito)


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Google searches give different results depending on name

  • Stegomyia aegypti1000

  • Aedes aegypti36400

  • Culex aegypti11300


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uBio Google client


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Why multiple names for one species?

  • Ignorance of earlier literature

  • Dispute over species boundaries

  • Describe morphs of the same species as different species (e.g., colour, sex, or life history morphs)


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Peacrabs of New Zealand

Species A

males

females

Species A

hard stage

females

new species

hard stage

females

Species A

Species B


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“Three” blind men and the elephant


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A real example (Anomalocaris)


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Furnarius leucopus

Furnariphilus pagei Price and Clayton

Immortality = having a species named after you


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Taxonomy needs help

  • Making literature and specimens readily accessible

  • Making it easier to identify species

  • Making it easier to discover whether a species is new to science


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Home pages for species

  • How would you find out about a particular species?

  • Create a home page for each species (you could contribute!)


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WikiSpecieshttp://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page


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Barcodes

Only a few numbers needed to generate unique identifiers

e.g., 10 x 10 x10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000,000


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DNA as a biological barcode

  • Sequence the same stretch of DNA in all animals

  • Use sequence as a unique identifier

  • Quickly know whether sequence is new or not (compare with all known sequences)

  • Get some idea of what unknown species is (e.g., it’s like fly DNA)

  • Already used in microbiology and forensic zoology (e.g., whale meat)


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DNA sequence


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DNA barcode for Calidris alpina (Dunlin)


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Names and diversity

  • Zoologists have a well defined scheme for naming species

  • Names for species can change

  • Internet will play a big role in cataloguing life (you could help out)

  • DNA barcoding may be the future for species discovery and identification


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