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US Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research Seminar on Cambodia Meridian International Center Washington, DC August 18, 2005. Cambodia Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005) Naranhkiri Tith, Ph.D. P&FRC.

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US Department of StateBureau of Intelligence and ResearchSeminar on CambodiaMeridian International CenterWashington, DCAugust 18, 2005

Cambodia

Recent Socio-Economic Performance:

An Assessment

(1993-2005)

Naranhkiri Tith, Ph.D.

P&FRC



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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

Fact Sheet

(For more facts on Cambodia, go to[http://buzz.blogger.com/2005/07/cambodian-bloggers.html])

  • Population (2004): 14 million (multiracial with Khmer majority)

  • Area: 181,040 sq. km

  • Main religion: Mainly Therevada Buddhism; Christianity and Islam also practiced

  • Civilization: Indianized


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

Fact Sheet

(For more facts on Cambodia, go to[http://buzz.blogger.com/2005/07/cambodian-bloggers.html])

  • Political system: Constitutional monarchy

  • Per capita income: US$ 300 (2003)

  • Independence from France:November 9, 1953

  • Membership in

    international organizations:United Nations system, World Bank, IMF, ASDB, ASEAN, WTO


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

Fact Sheet

  • Main economic activities: Agriculture, tourism, garment, logging

    • Main exports: Timber, rubber rice, garment, fish, and tourism

    • Natural resources:Timber, Gemstones, Iron ore,Manganese, Phosphate Hydro electric power and natural gas potential

    • Population per sq. km 75 compared to 265 for Vietnam


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

Fact Sheet

  • Less than a third of its population of about 14 million, had access to safe water in 2000

  • Cambodia belongs to poorest countries in world, with per capita GNP at about US$ 300 in 2003, lower than any other East Asian countries, except Myanmar


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

  • International environment and national economic management

    "While globalization presents many potential benefits, it also poses special challenges. In a democracy, it is necessary that the process of reform be perceived as equitable and caring."

  • Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India in a recent interview with The Globalist, July 2005


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

Outline

I.Introduction: initial conditions with implications for Policy design and Implementation

II.Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

  • Macro-economic issues

  • Social issues


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

Outline

3.Environmental issues

4. Institutional & structural issues

III. Assessing policy implementation: Governance

1. Administrative and technical capability

2. political will to reform

IV. Concluding remarks

V. Annex


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

I. Introduction: initial conditions with demanding implications for policy design and implementation

  • Cambodia is perfect example of man-made disaster facing three sets of daunting transitional problems with encompassing implications for policy design and implementation from initial conditions:


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

I. Introduction: initial conditions with demanding implications for policy design and implementation

1. colonized underdeveloped country

2. communist country

3. strife-torn country (civil war and foreign invasion)

(See Annex I and Figure 1)


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

II. Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

1. Macro economic issues:

  • Level, structure of production, and Contribution to Growth rate

  • Structure and level of employment


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

II. Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

1. Macro economic issues:

  • Inflation rate

  • Saving and investment

  • Level of international reserves

  • Main determinants of growth


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

II. Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

2. Social Issues

  • Cambodia Has Gone Backward

    • Social Indicators (poverty, mortality, and illiteracy, undernourished and stunted growth children) have worsened over last ten years, meaning the country has gone backward



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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

II. Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

3.Environmental and Natural Resources Issues

  • Natural resources management

    • Forestry issues

    • Fishery issues

    • Land ownership issues


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

II. Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

4. Institutional & Structural Issues

  • Market-based reform (Privatization & price liberalization)

  • Legal reform (civil, commercial, criminal, constitutional)

  • Judicial reform (Independent, transparent, and de-politicized)

  • Civil service reform (reduction and better paid)(For chronology of reforms and main events, see Annex I)


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

II. Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

4. Institutional & Structural Issues

  • Military reform (demobilized, new jobs training)

  • Fiscal reform (decentralized, more efficient and transparent tax administration)

  • Financial reform (two-tier banking system, capital market)

    (For chronology of reforms and main events, see Annex I)


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

II. Assessing socio-economic performance and policy design

4. Institutional & Structural Issues

  • Foreign sector reform (flexible, unification of markets)

  • Physical infrastructure development (at all level and fields)

  • Education reform (higher standard, more adapted to modern technology)

    (For chronology of reforms and main events, see Annex I)


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

III. Assessing policy implementation

  • Governance reform: weak governance is Achilles’ heal for growth in Cambodia

    (see annex III & V)

  • Voice and accountability

  • Political stability

  • Government effectiveness and openness


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

III. Assessing policy implementation

  • Governance reform: weak governance is Achilles’ heal for growth in Cambodia

    (see annex III & V)

    • Transparency of regulatory framework

    • Rule of law

    • Control of corruption


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

III. Assessing policy implementation

  • Governance reform: weak governance is Achilles’ heal for growth in Cambodia

    (see Annex III & V)

    • Efforts to establish an independent judiciary have been considerable for over a decade but have not yet achieved hoped-for results.


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

  • IV. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is going backward: growth but no development:

    Increasing infant mortality

    Decreasing life expectancy

    Increasing malnutrition and famine


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

  • IV. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is going backward: growth but no development:

    Decreasing availability of land for peasants due to land grabbing

    Degradation of environment (deforestation) leading to prolonged draught (2004) and severe flooding (2000)


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

IV. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

  • Is Cambodia becoming another Myanmar under Chinese sphere of influence?

  • Should Khmer Rouge trial be test case for Hun Sen’s seriousness and commitment to reform?

  • Is Cambodia a failed state or at risks? (see Annex IV&V)

  • Some Implications for future role of international community in Cambodia.


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: An Assessment (1993-2005)

  • V. Annex

  • Annex I: Chronology of political events and major reforms

  • Annex II: Trends in Poverty and outlook

  • Annex III: Governance indicators

  • Annex IV: Selected experts’ assessments & opinions on political, and socio- economic situations in Cambodia

  • Annex V: Indicators of states at risks


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: (1993-2005)An Assessment (1993-2005)

V. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

    • Annex V: Indicators of states at risk :

      The Twelve Indicators of risks by Foreign Policy Magazine

  • Political Indicators

  • 7. Criminalization and/or Delegitimization of the State

  • 8. Progressive Deterioration of Public Services

  • 9. Suspension or Arbitrary Application of the Rule of Law and Widespread Violation of Human Rights

  • 10. Security Apparatus Operates as a "State Within a State"

  • 11. Rise of Factionalized Elites

  • 12. Intervention of Other States or External Political Actors

  • The Mission of The Fund for Peace is to prevent war & alleviate the conditions that cause war. The Fund for Peace 1701 K Street, NW, 11th Floor / Washington, DC 20006 phone: 202.223.7940 / Fax: 202.223.7947


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: (1993-2005)An Assessment (1993-2005)

V. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

  • Annex V: Indicators of states at risk :

    Failed States Index

  • Foreign Affairs Magazine

  • Carnegie Endowment of International Peace

  • August, 5, 2005

  • About 2 billion people live in countries that are in danger of collapse. In the first annual Failed States Index, FOREIGN POLICY and the Fund for Peace rank the countries about to go over the brink.

  • America is now threatened less by conquering states than we are by failing ones.” That was the conclusion of the 2002 U.S. National Security Strategy. For a country whose foreign policy in the 20th century was dominated by the struggles against powerful states such as Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union, the U.S. assessment is striking. Nor is the United States alone in diagnosing the problem. U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan has warned that “ignoring failed states creates problems that sometimes come back to bite us.” French President Jacques Chirac has spoken of “the threat that failed states carry for the world’s equilibrium.” World leaders once worried about who was amassing power; now they worry about the absence of it.

  • Failed states have made a remarkable odyssey from the periphery to the very center of global politics. During the Cold War, state failure was seen through the prism of superpower conflict and was rarely addressed as a danger in its own right. In the 1990s, “failed states” fell largely into the province of humanitarians and human rights activists, although they did begin to consume the attention of the world’s sole superpower, which led interventions in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo. For so-called foreign-policy realists, however, these states and the problems they posed were a distraction from weightier issues of geopolitics.


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: (1993-2005)An Assessment (1993-2005)

V. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

    • Annex V: Indicators of states at risk :

      Failed States Index

  • Foreign Affairs Magazine

  • Carnegie Endowment of International Peace

  • August, 5, 2005

  • Now, it seems, everybody cares. The dangerous exports of failed states—whether international terrorists, drug barons, or weapons arsenals—are the subject of endless discussion and concern. For all the newfound attention, however, there is still uncertainty about the definition and scope of the problem. How do you know a failed state when you see one? Of course, a government that has lost control of its territory or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of force has earned the label. But there can be more subtle attributes of failure. Some regimes, for example, lack the authority to make collective decisions or the capacity to deliver public services. In other countries, the populace may rely entirely on the black market, fail to pay taxes, or engage in large-scale civil disobedience. Outside intervention can be both a symptom of and a trigger for state collapse. A failed state may be subject to involuntary restrictions of its sovereignty, such as political or economic sanctions, the presence of foreign military forces on its soil, or other military constraints, such as a no-fly zone.

  • How many states are at serious risk of state failure? The World Bank has identified about 30 “low-income countries under stress,” whereas Britain’s Department for International Development has named 46 “fragile” states of concern. A report commissioned by the CIA has put the number of failing states at about 20.


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: (1993-2005)An Assessment (1993-2005)

V. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

    • Annex V: Indicators of states at risk :

      Failed States Index

  • Foreign Affairs Magazine

  • Carnegie Endowment of International Peace

  • August, 5, 2005

  • To present a more precise picture of the scope and implications of the problem, the Fund for Peace, an independent research organization, and FOREIGN POLICY have conducted a global ranking of weak and failing states. Using 12 social, economic, political, and military indicators, we ranked 60 states in order of their vulnerability to violent internal conflict. (For each indicator, the Fund for Peace computed scores using software that analyzed data from tens of thousands of international and local media sources from the last half of 2004. For a complete discussion of the 12 indicators, please go to www.ForeignPolicy.com or www.fundforpeace.org.) The resulting index provides a profile of the new world disorder of the 21st century and demonstrates that the problem of weak and failing states is far more serious than generally thought. About 2 billion people live in insecure states, with varying degrees of vulnerability to widespread civil conflict.

  • The instability that the index diagnoses has many faces. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo or Somalia, state failure has been apparent for years, manifested by armed conflict, famine, disease outbreaks, and refugee flows. In other cases, however, instability is more elusive. Often, corrosive elements have not yet triggered open hostilities, and pressures may be bubbling just below the surface. Large stretches of lawless territory exist in many countries in the index, but that territory has not always been in open revolt against state institutions.


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: (1993-2005)An Assessment (1993-2005)

V. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

    • Annex V: Indicators of states at risk :

      Failed States Index

  • Foreign Affairs Magazine

  • Carnegie Endowment of International Peace

  • August, 5, 2005

  • Conflict may be concentrated in local territories seeking autonomy or secession (as in the Philippines and Russia). In other countries, instability takes the form of episodic fighting, drug mafias, or warlords dominating large swaths of territory (as in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Somalia). State collapse sometimes happens suddenly, but often the demise of the state is a slow and steady deterioration of social and political institutions (Zimbabwe and Guinea are good examples). Some countries emerging from conflict may be on the mend but in danger of backsliding (Sierra Leone and Angola). The World Bank found that, within five years, half of all countries emerging from civil unrest fall back into conflict in a cycle of collapse (Haiti and Liberia).

  • Weak states are most prevalent in Africa, but they also appear in Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Experts have for years discussed an “arc of instability”—an expression that came into use in the 1970s to refer to a “Muslim Crescent” extending from Afghanistan to the “Stans” in the southern part of the former Soviet


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: (1993-2005)An Assessment (1993-2005)

V. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

    • Annex V: Indicators of states at risk :

      Failed States Index

  • Foreign Affairs Magazine

  • Carnegie Endowment of International Peace

  • August, 5, 2005

  • Union. Our study suggests that the concept is too narrow. The geography of weak states reveals a territorial expanse that extends from Moscow to Mexico City, far wider than an “arc” would suggest, and not limited to the Muslim world.

  • The index does not provide any easy answers for those looking to shore up countries on the brink. Elections are almost universally regarded as helpful in reducing conflict. However, if they are rigged, conducted during active fighting, or attract a low turnout, they can be ineffective or even harmful to stability. Electoral democracy appears to have had only a modest impact on the stability of states such as Iraq, Rwanda, Kenya, Venezuela, Nigeria, and Indonesia. Ukraine ranks as highly vulnerable in large part because of last year’s disputed election.

  • The 10 most at-risk countries in the index have already shown clear signs of state failure. Ivory Coast, a country cut in half by civil war, is the most vulnerable to disintegration; it would probably collapse completely if U.N. peacekeeping forces pulled out. It is followed by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Iraq, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Chad, Yemen, Liberia, and Haiti. The index includes others whose instability is less widely acknowledged, including Bangladesh (17th), Guatemala (31st), Egypt (38th), Saudi Arabia (45th), and Russia (59th).


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Cambodia: Recent Socio-Economic Performance: (1993-2005)An Assessment (1993-2005)

V. Concluding Remarks

  • Cambodia is Going Backward: Main Causes

    • Annex V: Indicators of states at risk :

      Failed States Index

  • Foreign Affairs Magazine

  • Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

  • August, 5, 2005

  • What are the clearest early warning signs of a failing state? Among the 12 indicators we use, two consistently rank near the top. Uneven development is high in almost all the states in the index, suggesting that inequality within states—and not merely poverty—increases instability. Criminalization or delegitimization of the state, which occurs when state institutions are regarded as corrupt, illegal, or ineffective, also figured prominently. Facing this condition, people often shift their allegiances to other leaders—opposition parties, warlords, ethnic nationalists, clergy, or rebel forces. Demographic factors, especially population pressures stemming from refugees, internally displaced populations, and environmental degradation, are also found in most at-risk countries, as are consistent human rights violations. Identifying the signs of state failure is easier than crafting solutions, but pinpointing where state collapse is likely is a necessary first step.

  • Click on an indicator to see some examples of measures that may be included in the analysis of that indicator.

    These are neither exclusive nor exhaustive. You can add more measures, as appropriate.

    The Mission of The Fund for Peace is to prevent war & alleviate the conditions that cause war. The Fund for Peace 1701 K Street, NW, 11th Floor / Washington, DC 20006 phone: 202.223.7940 / Fax: 202.223.7947


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