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Transition to Agriculture. Left: Mammoth bone hut, Northern Europe: 20,000 ya. Middle: Paleo-Indian life in Museum of Florida History: 12,000 ya. Bottom: Tool progression from Oldowan to upper palaeolithic. Upper Palaeolithic – Hotbed of Culture. 40 – 10k yBP Shelters 15,000 ya Ukraine

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Transition to Agriculture

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Transition to agriculture l.jpg

Transition to Agriculture


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Left: Mammoth bone hut, Northern Europe: 20,000 ya.

Middle: Paleo-Indian life in Museum of Florida History: 12,000 ya.

Bottom: Tool progression from Oldowan to upper palaeolithic.

Upper Palaeolithic – Hotbed of Culture

  • 40 – 10k yBP

  • Shelters

    • 15,000 ya Ukraine

    • Some made with mammoth bones

    • Wood, leather working; carpentry

  • Tools

    • From cores to blades

    • Specialization

    • Composite tools

    • Bow and arrow

  • Domestication of dogs

  • Gathering rather than hunting became the mainstay of human economies.


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Early H. sapiens Culture

  • Art

    • Traces of art found in beads, carvings, and paintings

    • Cave paintings in Spain and southern France showed a marked degree of skill

  • Female figurines

    • 27,000 to 22,000 years B.P. (Western Europe to Siberia)

    • Called “Venus figurines,” this art depicted women with large breasts and broad hips

      • Perhaps it was an example of an ideal type, or perhaps an expression of a desire for fertility or abundance.

Venus of Willendorf. Discovered in 1908 in Austria and dated to approximately 23,000 years ago.


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Archaic H. sapiens Culture

  • Cave paintings

    • Mostly animals on bare walls

    • Subjects were animals favored for their meat and skins

    • Human figures were rarely drawn due to taboos and fears that it would somehow harm others

Cave paintings from 20,000 years ago at Vallon-Pont-d’Arc in southern France (left) and from Lascaux, in southwest France

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSHKqX8_pqU&feature=related


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Domestication of the Dog

  • The modern dog evolved from the gray wolf. 1st animal to be domesticated.

  • Oldest fossil dog from 14,000 ya – although DNA suggest much older 15k – 100k.

  • Because wolves operate in packs, humans easily took the place of the "highest ranking wolf." So the animals quickly learned obedience.

  • Domestication caused the development of floppy ears, short snouts, spotted coats, highly-set tails and even a tendency to bark.


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Social Organization

  • Hunter-gatherer analogy

    • Small group, low population density, nomadism, kinship groups important

  • Migration

    • North America was the last colonized by modern humans.

    • Beringia (land bridge) between Russia and Alaska

    • Asian origin of Native Americans

    • 30,000 to 12,000 years B.P. was first migration


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The Natufians & Pre-Neolithic Culture

  • The Natufian culture was a pre-neolithic culture that existed in the Eastern Middle East between 12,500 – 10,000 yrs ago.

  • The were semi-sedentary, before the introduction of full-scale agriculture.

  • The Natufian communities are possibly the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region.

  • There is no evidence for the deliberate cultivation of cereals, but people at the time certainly made use of wild cereals.


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The Neolithic – 10,000 year ago!

  • The New Stone Age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated plants and/or animals.

  • The first agricultural revolution – the transition from hunting & gathering communities & bands.

  • 7-8 separate locales worldwide with the earliest in the Middle East around 10,000 ya.

History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 1.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdYH8m6HOCo&feature=related

History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 2.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRsrhhjDSQM&feature=related

History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 3.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ft5SiS5Cz0&feature=related

History of Man. From hunter gatherer to agricultural. Part 4.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0dOOARz_Mk&feature=related


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The First Farmers

  • Domestication of plants and animals for food occurred, independently, in Old World and the Americas around 10,000 years ago


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Domesticates in the Archaeological Record


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Animal Domestication - Regional

  • Southwest Asia: This area probably included some of the first domesticated dogs, sheep, goats and pigs.

  • CentralAsia: People raised chicken and used Bactrian camels for carrying loads in Central Asia.

  • Arabia: As the name implies, the Arabian camel (a one-humped camel, also known as a dromedary) originated here.

  • China: China was home to early domestication of the water buffalo, pigs and dogs.

  • Ukraine: People in the area that is now Ukraine domesticated the wild tarpan horses that historians believe are the ancestors of modern horses.

  • Egypt: The donkey came in handy here, as it can work hard without much water and vegetation.

  • South America: The domesticated llama and alpaca came from this continent. Historians believe South Americans saved these species from the brink of extinction with domestication.


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Social Evolution


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Costs & Benefits of Farming


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