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The Rise of Fascism & Militarism in Italy, Germany & Japan; & Prelude to War: American Policy of Neutrality. Benitio Mussolini: "What is Fascism?" (1932) . 1922-Mussolini & the Fascist Party came to power in Italy 1932-Mussolini wrote a definition of Fascism for the Italian dictionary

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The rise of fascism militarism in italy germany japan prelude to war american policy of neutrality l.jpg

The Rise of Fascism & Militarism in Italy, Germany & Japan;& Prelude to War: American Policy of Neutrality

Benitio mussolini what is fascism 1932 l.jpg
Benitio Mussolini: "What is Fascism?" (1932)

  • 1922-Mussolini & the Fascist Party came to power in Italy

  • 1932-Mussolini wrote a definition of Fascism for the Italian dictionary

  • Rejection of Pacifism, Marxism & Democracy

  • Life=duty, struggle & conquest

  • Humans=inherently unequal

  • State=superior to the individual

  • Territorial Expansion=manifestation of a nation’s vitality

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Raymond H. Geist’s letter to Moffat (1934)

  • Geist = U.S. Consul in Berlin

  • Moffat=chief of the division of Western European Affairs

  • Letter of Sept. 15, 1934

  • Describes the newly established Nazi state

  • Germany is remilitarizing

    • Building up its air force & mechanized divisions

    • The German youth is glorifying military heroism

  • Predicts war by the end of the decade

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Nuremberg Laws (1935)

  • Proclaimed during the 1935 Nuremburg Rally

  • Laws severely restricted the freedoms of German Jews

  • the Jim Crow Laws in the American South= a model for segregation

  • Forbade Marriage & Sexual Relations between Germans & Jews

  • Stripped Citizenship from German-Jews

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Haile Selassie’s Appeal to the League of Nations(June 1936)

  • October 3, 1935, Mussolini launched an invasion of Ethiopia

  • Haile Selassie I =Emperor of Ethiopia

  • League had promised Ethiopia assistance against Italian aggression

  • Outlines Italian policy of targeting civilians

  • Exposes Italian diplomatic treachery

  • Exposes the League’s goal of collective security as a sham

  • Argues that, by its inaction, the League is establishing a deadly precedent of “bowing before force”

  • ultimately, the League does nothing

  • Other states like Germany & Japan are encourage to pursue expansionist aims

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Hossbach Memorandum (BERLIN, November 10, 1937)

  • Since his seizure of power in 1933, Hitler demanded a fair but peaceful revision of the Versailles Treaty.

  • Hitler exploited widespread international pacifism

  • In 1937, Hitler held a secret meeting in Berlin with his top generals

  • Germany’s Problem=lack of living space

  • autarky, participation in the world economy and overseas colonies are rejected as possible solutions

  • Goal of German Foreign Policy=Expansion at the expense of Germany’s neighbors

  • War must come by 1943-1945, because Germany’s enemies will have caught up with German rearmament

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Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928

  • Named after the American secretary of state, Frank B. Kellogg & French Foreign minister Aristide Briand

  • Treaty renounced war as a means of national policy

  • International Disputes should be solved by peaceful means

  • helped to formulate later international law especially notions of “crimes against peace.”

  • Pact lack an efficient enforcement mechanism

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Message to the Nations of the World appealing for Peace by Disarmament and the end of Economic Chaos, (May 16, 1933)

  • To solve the global financial crisis, Franklin Roosevelt urges economic cooperation and an international agreement for disarmament.

  • Considers Armaments to be unnecessary

  • Proposes that all gov’ts reduce their militaries

  • Urges Gov’ts to adopt transcend domestic needs & create lasting international economic reform

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The Nye Report Disarmament and the end of Economic Chaos, (May 16, 1933)(February 24, 1936)

  • In 1934, Senator Nye headed an investigation of the munitions industry.

  • he charged the industry with corruption by connecting wartime profits of the banking & munitions industries to America's involvement in World War I

  • Many Americans felt betrayed

  • perhaps the war hadn't been an epic battle between the forces of good (democracy) and evil (autocracy)

  • The report bolstered sentiments for isolationism

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"Is Neutrality Possible?" Disarmament and the end of Economic Chaos, (May 16, 1933)By Gerald Nye

  • World War I led to an unacceptable loss of life & caused grave economic consequences

  • The U.S. should focus its energies at home

  • U.S. should avoid European entanglements

  • Neutrality is the preferred policy over “collective security”

  • Munitions manufacturers stir up animosities between Japan & the U.S. to ensure profits

  • Money wasted on the military could be used for the public’s benefit

  • The spread of Fascism can be checked by building up a better societal model in the United States

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"Neutrality Act" of August 31, 1935 Disarmament and the end of Economic Chaos, (May 16, 1933)

  • spurred by the growth of isolationism after WW1

  • Goal=to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts

  • Prohibited

    • Sale of arms to nations at war

    • The transport of arms on American vessels

    • Americans from traveling on belligerent vessels

  • Further amended in 1936, 1937 & 1939

  • Allowed the President to decide when nations were at war

    • This provided a loophole that FDR carefully exploited to assist American allies from aggressor states

  • Legacy

    • Made no distinction between Aggressor states & states being attacked

    • they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain vs. Nazi Germany

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Address Delivered by President Roosevelt Before the Congress, January 3, 1936

  • Points

    • International tensions have steadily increased over the past 3 years

    • By contrast, Western Hemisphere enjoys a “good neighbor” policy

    • The U.S. must take note of the rise of aggression abroad

      • These states lack democratic channels for change

    • Bellicose states have blocked disarmament efforts

  • Although it reaffirms American isolation, FDR’s speech is notable for its markedly pessimistic tone

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Roosevelt's "Quarantine" Speech (October 5, 1937) Congress, January 3, 1936

  • Hopes for global peace are undermined by aggressor states

  • “foundations of civilization” are threatened

  • The U.S. & the Western Hemisphere also in danger

  • Complete isolation from the world isn’t possible

  • U.S. must reestablish international law & morality

  • War is like a disease, it must be quarantined to protect the world

  • With the speech, FDR sounds the alarm that American must now take notice of global problems

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Depiction of U.S. Isolationism Congress, January 3, 1936

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America First Party Congress, January 3, 1936

  • Est. September 1940

  • Pressure group to keep the U.S. out of the war

  • Peak membership=800,000

  • April 23, 1941 Charles Lindbergh speech in New York

    • U.S. shouldn’t enter war unless it can win

    • Britain nor the U.S. can defeat Germany

    • Fall of the democracies in Europe can be blamed on the interventionists in those countries (effectively blames the victims)

    • Britain is trying to lure the U.S. into the war

    • FDR is leading the U.S. into war but the majority is against it

    • U.S should follow the Monroe Doctrine & Washington’s advice to avoid “entangling alliances”

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Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech Congress, January 3, 1936(Sept. 11, 1941)

  • Propaganda has led the American public from isolation toward being on the verge of war

  • 3 groups are responsible

    • The British

    • The Jews

    • The Roosevelt Administration

  • According to Lindbergh, these groups control the media & are brainwashing the public

  • Lindbergh’s speech with its anti-Semitic connotations enraged many

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Bibliography Congress, January 3, 1936

  • Slide #1:

    • Mussolini/Hitler:

    • Roosevelt:

    • Lindbergh:

  • Slide #2

    • Photo of Mussolini:

  • Slide #3

    • Photo of Hitler:

    • Photo of Nuremberg Rally:

  • Slide #4

    • Photo of Nazi Eugenic Test:

    • Photo of “Jew Only Bench”:

    • Photo of Jewish Shop:

  • Slide #5

  • Time Cover of Haile Selassie:

  • Slide #6

    • Photo of German Troops:

  • Slide #7

    • Defense Spending Chart:

  • Slide #8

    • David Lowe Cartoon:

  • Slide #9

    • German Expansion:

  • Slide #10

    • Japanese Expansion Before Pearl Harbor:

  • Slide #11

    • Kellogg-Briand:

  • Slide #13

    • The Nye Committee:

  • Slide #15

    • Political Cartoon:

  • Slide #17

    • Roosevelt:

  • Slide #18

    • Political Cartoon:

  • Slide #19

    • Lindbergh America First:

  • Slide #20

    • Dr. Suess Cartoon: