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The Enlightenment. Chapter 5 Section 1 Reading Focus. How did scientific progress promote trust in human reason? How did the social contract and separation of powers affect views on government? How did new ideas affect society and the economy?. Chapter 5 Section 1 Vocabulary.

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Chapter 5 section 1 reading focus
Chapter 5 Section 1 Reading Focus

  • How did scientific progress promote trust in human reason?

  • How did the social contract and separation of powers affect views on government?

  • How did new ideas affect society and the economy?


Chapter 5 section 1 vocabulary
Chapter 5 Section 1 Vocabulary

  • Natural Law: rule or law that governs human nature

  • Social Contract:

  • Natural right: right that belong to all humans from birth

  • Philosophe: enlightened thinkers who used science to improve society

  • Physiocrat: enlightened thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics

  • Laissez Faire: policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.


Chapter 5 section 2 reading focus
Chapter 5 Section 2 Reading Focus

  • What roles did censorship and the salons play in the spread of new ideas?

  • How did philosophes influence enlightened despots?

  • How did the Enlightenment affect arts and literature?

  • Why were the lives of majority unaffected?


Chapter 5 section 1 vocabulary1
Chapter 5 Section 1 Vocabulary

  • Censorship: restriction on access to ideas and information.

  • Salon: informal gathering where ideas and information were exchanged.

  • Enlightened Despot: absolute ruler who used their power to bring about change.

  • Baroque: ornate style of art and architecture.

  • Rococo: elegant style of art and architecture.


What was the enlightenment
What Was the Enlightenment?

The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in Europe during the 18th century that led to a whole new world view.


According to the 18th- century philosopher Immanuel Kant, the “motto” of the Enlightenment was “Sapere aude! Have courage to use your own intelligence!” (Kant, “What Is Enlightenment?” 1784)

Immanuel Kant


Enlightenment principles
Enlightenment Principles

  • Religion, tradition, and superstition limited independent thought

  • Accept knowledge based on observation, logic, and reason, not on faith

  • Scientific and academic thought should be secular

A meeting of French Enlightenment thinkers



Ren descartes 1596 1650
René Descartes (1596–1650)

  • French philosopher and mathematician

  • Questioned the basis of his own knowledge

  • “Cogito ergo sum”


The french salon and the philosophes
The French Salon and the Philosophes

  • Madame de Pompadour

  • Salons: gatherings for aristocrats to discuss new theories and ideas

  • Philosophes: French Enlightenment thinkers who attended the salons

Madame de Pompadour


Voltaire 1694 1778
Voltaire (1694–1778)

  • Most famous philosophe

  • Wrote plays, essays, poetry, philosophy, and books

  • Attacked the “relics” of the medieval social order

  • Championed social, political, and religious tolerance


The encyclop die
The Encyclopédie

  • Major achievement of the philosophes

  • Begun in 1745; completed in 1765

Frontspiece to the Encyclopédie


The encyclop die continued
The Encyclopédie (continued)

  • Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert

  • Banned by the Catholic Church

Encyclopédie editor Denis Diderot


Thomas hobbes 1588 1679
Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679)

  • Applied rational analysis to the study of government

  • Attacked the concept of divine right, yet supported a strong monarchy

  • Believed that humans were basically driven by passions and needed to be kept in check by a powerful ruler


John locke 1632 1704
John Locke (1632–1704)

  • The “State of Nature”

  • Tabula rasa


Locke continued
Locke(continued)

  • Treatises of Government

  • Rights


Jean jacques rousseau 1712 1778
Jean-Jacques Rousseau(1712–1778)

  • Philosophized on the nature of society and government

  • The Social Contract


Baron de montesquieu 1689 1755
Baron de Montesquieu (1689–1755)

  • French noble and political philosopher

  • The Spirit of the Laws


Montesquieu continued
Montesquieu (continued)

  • Separation of powers

  • Constitutional monarchy

Frontspiece to The Spirit of the Laws


Women and the enlightenment
Women and the Enlightenment

  • Changing views

  • Role of education

  • Equality

Mary Wollstonecraft

Olympe de Gouges


Mary wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women


Wollstonecraft continued
Wollstonecraft (continued)

  • Education

  • Women’s rights movement

Title page of Wollstonecraft’s Thoughts on the Education of Daughters


Olympe de gouges
Olympe De Gouges

  • Criticized the French Revolution

  • The Rights of Women

  • “Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen”

  • Executed in 1793


Enlightened monarchs
“Enlightened Monarchs”

  • Most of Europe ruled by absolute monarchs

  • Receptive to Enlightenment ideas

  • Instituted new laws and practices

Enlightened Monarchs

  • Frederick II, Prussia

  • Catherine the Great, Russia

  • Maria Theresa, Austria

  • Joseph II, Holy Roman Empire

  • Gustav III, Sweden

  • Napoleon I, France


Frederick the great ruled 1740 1786
Frederick the Great (ruled 1740–1786)

  • Prussian ruler

  • Had a strong interest in Enlightenment works

  • Induced Voltaire to come to Prussia


Frederick the great continued
Frederick the Great (continued)

  • Wanted to make Prussia a modern state

  • Reforms

Painting titled “Frederick the Great and Voltaire.”


Catherine the great ruled 1762 1796
Catherine the Great(ruled 1762–1796)

  • Russian ruler

  • Well-versed in Enlightenment works

  • “Westernizing” Russia


Catherine the great continued
Catherine the Great(continued)

  • Domestic reforms

  • Peasant revolt


Maria theresa ruled 1740 1780
Maria Theresa (ruled 1740–1780)

  • Austrian ruler

  • Government reforms

  • The serfs

  • Son—Joseph II


Joseph ii ruled 1765 1790
Joseph II (ruled 1765–1790)

  • Ruled as coregent with his mother until 1780

  • Joseph’s reforms

    • Religious toleration

    • Control over the Catholic Church

    • Abolition of serfdom


Gustav iii ruled 1771 1792
Gustav III (ruled 1771–1792)

  • Swedish ruler

  • Read French Enlightenment works

  • Reforms

  • Absolutism


Napoleon i
Napoleon I

  • French ruler

  • Military career

  • Rise to power


Napoleon i continued
Napoleon I (continued)

  • Reforms

    • Education

    • Law


Chapter 5 section 3 reading focus
Chapter 5 Section 3 Reading Focus

  • What influences spurred Britain’s rise to global power?

  • How did the growth of constitutional government reflect conditions in politics and society.

  • How did George III reassert royal power?


Chapter 5 section 3 vocabulary
Chapter 5 Section 3 Vocabulary

  • Constitutional Government: government whose powered is defined and limited by law.

  • Cabinet: parliamentary advisors to the king who originally met in a small room, cabinet.

  • Prime Minister: head of the cabinet in a parliamentary government; usually the leader of the largest party in the legislature.

  • Oligarchy: government in which ruling power belongs to a few people.



Rise to global power
Rise to Global Power

  • Geography

  • Success in War

  • A Favorable Business Climate

  • Union with Scotland

  • Ireland


Constitutional government
Constitutional Government

  • Political Parties

    • Torres-

      • landed aristocrats who liked tradition.

      • Supported broad royal power

      • Supported Anglican Church

    • Whigs-

      • Favored the Glorious Revolution- controlled Monarch

      • Business backers

      • Tolerate of religion

      • Favored Parliament over the Monarch


Constitutional government1
Constitutional Government

  • The Cabinet System

    • George I- German Protestant- inherited the throne

    • Established advisors for decisions

    • Members are part of the majority party in the House of Commons

    • Remained intact unless the House of Commons voted against them


Constitutional government2
Constitutional Government

  • Prime Minister-

    • Leader of the majority party


The enlightenment and the american revolution
The Enlightenment and the American Revolution

  • Influence of Locke, Montesquieu

  • The Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson


Politics and society
Politics and Society

  • Land owners “Natural ruling class”

    • Held seats in the House of Commons

  • Wealthy land owners and Business leaders

    • Controlled cities and elections

  • Voting Right

    • Male property owners

    • Votes bought and sold openly


Politics and society1
Politics and Society

  • Commoners

    • Meager lives

    • Wealthy bought up farm land

    • Drifted to the towns

  • Middle Class

    • Merchants and Manufacturers

    • Controlled towns and city affairs


George iii reasserts royal power
George III Reasserts Royal Power

  • Born in England

  • Friends in high places

  • Dissolve the cabinet

  • Charge colonies for their defense

  • Mental illness lead to restoring the cabinet

  • Prime Minister gains leadership power during Napoleon’s conquests.


The u s constitution
The U.S. Constitution

  • Separation of powers

  • Checks and balances

Painting depicting the Constitutional Convention


The enlightenment and the french revolution
The Enlightenment and the French Revolution

  • The American Revolution

  • The Estates General

The Marquis de Lafayette


The declaration of the rights of man
The Declaration of theRights of Man

  • Adopted by National Assembly in 1789

  • “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité”


The legacy of the enlightenment
The Legacy of the Enlightenment

  • Government

  • Society

  • Education

The signing of the U.S. Constitution


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