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Sustaining Wild Species. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 22. Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College. Human Impacts on Biodiversity. Fig. 22-2 p. 561. Increasing Biodiversity. Physically diverse habitat.

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Sustaining wild species l.jpg
Sustaining Wild Species

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 22

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College



Increasing biodiversity l.jpg
Increasing Biodiversity

  • Physically diverse habitat

  • Moderate environmental disturbance

  • Small variations in conditions

  • Middle stages of ecological succession


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Decreasing Biodiversity

  • Environmental stress

  • Large environmental disturbance

  • Extreme environmental conditions

  • Severe limiting factors

  • Introduction of alien species

  • Geographic isolation


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US Diversity

Fig. 22-3 p. 562


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Strategies for Protecting Biodiversity

  • Species approach

  • Ecosystem approach

Fig. 22-5 p. 563


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Species Extinction

  • Local extinction

  • Ecological extinction

  • Biological extinction


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Endangered and Threatened Species

  • Endangered species

  • Threatened (vulnerable) species

  • Rare species

Fig. 22-7 p. 564

Florida manatee

Northern spotted owl (threatened)

Bannerman's turaco (Africa)

Gray wolf

Florida panther

© 2004 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning


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Extinction Risks

  • Factors: population size, habitat, and

    genetics

  • Population viability analysis

  • Minimum viable population

  • Minimum dynamic area

  • Characteristics of extinction-prone species (refer to Fig. 22-8 p. 566)


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Extinction Rates

  • Background (natural) rate of extinction

  • Massextinction

  • Adaptiveradiations


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Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?

  • Instrumental value

  • Intrinsic value

See Spotlight p. 571

Fig. 22-10p. 569


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Causes of Depletion of Wild Species

  • Human population growth

  • Failure to value the environment or ecological services

  • Increasing per capita resource use

  • Increasing use of Earth’s primary productivity

  • Poverty


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Causes of Premature Extinction of Wild Species

  • Habitat degradation

  • Introduction of non-native species

Fig. 22-12

p. 572


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Threats from Nonnative Species

Arrival

Roles of non-

native species

Examples

(p. 576)

See Connections

p. 577 and

Case Study p. 579

Fig. 22-19 p. 579


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Other Extinction Threats

Hunting and Poaching

Predators and Pest Control

Exotic Pets and Decorative Plants

Climate Change and Pollution


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Protecting Wild Species: The Research and Legal Approaches

  • Bioinformatics

  • International Treaties: CITES

  • National Laws: Lacey Act Endangered Species Act

  • Habitat conservation plans


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Protecting Wild Species: The Sanctuary Approach

  • Wildlife refuges and protected areas

  • Gene banks, botanical gardens, and farms

  • Zoos and Aquariums


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Wildlife Management

  • Laws regulating hunting and fishing

  • Harvest quotas

  • Population management plants

  • Improving habitat

  • Treaties and laws for migrating species


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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 23

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College


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Land Use in the World

Fig. 23-2

p. 595


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Land Use in the United States

Rangeland and pasture 29%

Fig. 23-3 p. 595


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Types of US Public Lands

  • Multiple-use lands: National Forests; National Resource Lands

  • Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges

  • Restricted-use lands: National Park System; National Wilderness Preservation System


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US Public Lands

Fig. 23-4

p. 596


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Managing US Public Land

  • Biodiversity and ecological function

  • No subsidies or tax breaks for use

  • Public should get fair compensation

  • Users held responsible for actions

  • Takings and property rights


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Managing and Sustaining Forests

Ecological Importance of Forests

  • Food webs and energy flow

  • Water regulation

  • Local and regional climate

  • Numerous habitats and niches

  • Air purification


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Managing and Sustaining Forests

Economic Importance of Forests

  • Fuelwood (50% of global forest use)

  • Industrial timber and lumber

  • Pulp and paper

  • Medicines

  • Mineral extraction and recreation


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Forest Structure

Fig. 23-9 p. 601


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Types of Forests

  • Old-growth (frontier) forests

  • Second-growth forests

  • Tree farms/plantation

Fig. 23-18 p. 609


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Forest Management

  • Rotation cycle

  • Even-aged management

  • Industrial forestry

  • Uneven-aged management

  • Improved diversity

  • Sustainable production

  • Multiple-use


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Management Strategies

Fig. 23-11 p. 601

Fig. 23-12 p. 602


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Logging Roads

  • Increased erosion and runoff

  • Habitat fragmentation

  • Pathways for exotic species

  • Accessibility to humans

Fig. 23-13 p. 602


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Harvesting Trees

  • Selective cutting

  • High-grading

  • Shelterwood cutting

  • Seed-tree cutting

  • Clearcutting

  • Strip cutting

Fig. 23-14 p. 603


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Sustainable Forestry

  • Longer rotations

  • Selective or strip cutting

  • Minimize fragmentation

  • Improved road building techniques

  • Certified sustainable grown(See Solutions p. 598)


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Pathogens

Fungal Diseases

  • Chestnut blight

  • Dutch elm disease

Insect Pests

  • Bark beetles

  • Gypsy moth


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Fire

Fig. 23-17 p. 607

  • Surface fires

  • Crown fires


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Forest Resources and Management in the United States

  • Habitat for threatened and endangered species

  • Water purification services

  • Recreation

  • 3% of timber harvest

  • Sustainable yield and multiple use

  • Substitutes for tree products


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Tropical Deforestation

  • Rapid and increasing

  • Loss of biodiversity

  • Cultural extinction

  • Unsustainable agriculture and ranching

  • Clearing for cash crop plantations

  • Commercial logging

  • Fuelwood



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Reducing Tropical Deforestation

  • Identification of critical ecosystems

  • Reducing poverty and population growth

  • Sustainable tropical agriculture

  • Encourage protection of large tracts

  • Debt-for-nature swaps

  • Less destructive harvesting methods


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The Fuelwood Crisis

  • Planting fast-growing fuelwood plants

  • Burning wood more efficiently

  • Switching to other fuels

Fig. 23-25 p. 618


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Managing and Sustaining National Parks

  • Most parks are too small to maintain biodiversity

  • Invasion by exotic species

  • Popularity a major problem

  • Traffic jams and air pollution

  • Visitor impact (noise)

  • Natural regulation

  • Better pay for park staff


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Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves

  • Include some moderate disturbance

  • Sustain natural ecological processes

  • Protect most important areas

  • Buffer zones

  • Gap analysis

See Solutions p. 625

  • Wilderness areas


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Ecological Restoration

  • Ecological restoration

  • Restoration ecology

  • Rehabilitation

See Individuals Matter p. 630

  • Replacement

  • Creating artificial ecosystems

  • Natural restoration


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Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 24

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College


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The Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity

  • Coral reefs

  • Estuaries

  • Deep ocean floor

  • Food items

Fig. 24-2

p. 636

  • Many chemicals

  • Medicines and drugs


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Human Impacts on Aquatic Biodiversity

  • Species loss and endangerment

  • Marine habitat loss and degradation

  • Freshwater habitat loss and degradation

  • Overfishing

  • Nonnative species

  • Pollution and global warming


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Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity

  • Protect endangered and threatened species

  • Establish protected areas

  • Integrated coastal management

  • Regulating and preventing ocean pollution

  • Sustainable management of marine fisheries


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Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries

  • Fishery regulations

  • Economic approaches

  • Bycatch reduction

  • Protected areas

See Spotlight p. 650

  • Nonnative species

  • Consumer information

  • Aquaculture


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Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Wetlands

Fig. 24-12 p. 653

  • Regulations

  • Mitigation banking

  • Land use planning

  • Wetlands restoration

  • Control of invasive species

See Individuals Matter p. 652


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Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Lakes

Fig. 24-13 p. 655

  • Pollution

  • Invasive species

  • Water levels

  • Cultural eutrophication


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Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Rivers

Fig. 24-14 p. 656

  • Pollution

  • Disruption of water flow

  • Loss of biodiversity

  • Invasive species


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