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Roberta Ann Dunbar
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
For Bridges and Barriers Workshop
State Department of Public Instruction
Raleigh, NC--July 12, 2006
(the images have been removed and replaced by hyperlinks, with some revisions due to accessibility)
Haynes, J.L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, 15-17
Haynes, J. L. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1991, 14-15.
Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p. 16
http://www.livius.org/pha-phd/pharaoh/pharaoh.htm 10th image down
Taylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press 1001, Cover
Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p. 31.
Scroll down to map and click to enlarge. Option to download printable map
National Geographic 203, 2 (February 2003). Map., 39
Map and person
Beja of the Sudan Coastal Region
Nuba Mountain People
Dinka and Cattle
Egyptian Slavers ca 1820 (link is slavers of the 19th century)
Courtesy of Robert O. Collins
Photo of Jebel Marra, a volcanic massif in Darfur
The Jebel Marra—at 8,000 ft, an important area of rich land of fields, orchards and pastures
http://www.iansa.org/images/front-page/sla-troops-darfur.jpg possible image of troops
http://www.sudan.net/graphic/news/conflict/darfur/SLA_Rebels.jpg troops image
Dr. Khalil Ibrahim—member of founding group
From an interview with Abubaker Hamid Nur
There was too much suffering. I travelled 60 kilometres to go to primary school, in Kornoi, when I was 7; 350 kilometres to go to intermediate school, in Geneina; 400 kilometres to go to secondary school in Fasher; and 1,000 kilometres to go to university, in Khartoum. It was forbidden to speak the Zaghawa language in school. In primary school, the teacher gave us a blue ticket to pass to any boy who spoke Zaghawa. At the end of the day, anyone who had had the ticket was whipped. The whole of Kutum province, with a population of more than 551,000 had one general doctor and no specialists. Women walked more than eight hours daily to get less than 60 litres of water. We were excluded from all key posts and had no way of communicating with the international community to ask for help. Why: Because a gang in Khartoum was controlling everything. (Flint and De Waal, Darfur. 2005, 92-93.
http://www.ushmm.org/conscience/alert/darfur/steidle/ Series of images and account by an American observer
http://eur.news1.yimg.com/eur.yimg.com/xp/reuters_molt/2278372575.jpg image of African Union Soldiers/observers
http://www.sudantribune.com/article.php3?id_article=11585 image Of US Sec’y of State Colin Powell testifying about genocide in Darfur
Minni Arkou Minawi